TOEFL-Д Хэрэглэгддэг Хамгийн Түгээмэл 500 Үг

2018 оны 9-р сарын 19    8 цаг 56 минут

Хэрэв та англи хэлээр ярьдаг орнууд, мөн англи хэлээр хичээлээ заадаг, нэр хүндтэй их сургуулиудад суралцахыг хүсч байвал, танд англи хэлний өндөр чадвар шаардлагатай. Тэгвэл таны англи хэлний чадварыг шалгаж, түвшин тогтоодог хамгийн түгээмэл шалгалт нь АНУ дахь ETS (Educational Testing Service) байгууллагаас дэлхий даяар зохион байгуулдаг TOEFL (The Test of English as a Foreign Language) юм.

TOEFL-ийн шалгалт нь дотроо iBT (Internet-Based TOEFL) , PBT (Paper-Based TOEFL) гэсэн хоёр төрөлтэй бөгөөд монгол хэлээр хөрвүүлбэл iBT нь интернэтэд суурилсан TOEFL, PBT нь цаас суурьтай (шалгалт өгөхдөө цаасан дээр гараар нөхөж бичдэг) TOEFL юм.

Хэрэв та англи хэлээр ярьдаг орны их сургууль, эсвэл англиар хичээл заадаг коллеж, их сургуульд суралцахыг хүсч байвал, iBT-ийг нь өгөх хэрэгтэй. Учир нь, коллеж, их сургуулиуд гол төлөв iBT-ийн оноо шаарддаг. iBT нь тус бүр 0-30 оноо бүхий унших, сонсох, ярих, бичих чадвар гэсэн дөрвөн хэсгээс бүрдэх ба дээд оноо нь 120 юм.

Харин PBT-ийг ямар нэг байгууллагаас хэрэгжүүлж буй үйл ажиллагаа (жишээ нь, байгууллагын тэтгэлэгт хөтөлбөр)-т зориулж авдаг байна. Мөн, интернэтэд суурилсан TOEFL өгөх боломжгүй зарим улсын иргэд iBT-ийн оронд PBT өгч болно (Монгол Улс үүнд хамаардаггүй). PBT нь сонсох чадвар, дүрэм, унших чадвар бүхий гурван хэсэгтэй ба дээд оноо нь 677 юм.

Хэдийгээр iBT, PBT нь агуулгын хувьд нэлээд ялгаатай боловч унших хэсгүүд нь ихээхэн төстэй гэж хэлж болно. Иймд та iBT өгөх гэж байгаа бол PBT-ийн унших хэсгийг ашиглан өөрийгөө бэлдэх бүрэн боломжтой.

iBT, PBT-ийн унших чадварын хэсэгт хэрэгтэй нэгэн чухал мэдлэг нь англи хэлний үгсийн сан юм. iBT, PBT-ийн унших чадвар шалгадаг текстүүд танаас баялаг үгийн сан шаарддаг. Иймд та олон тооны үг цээжлэх хэрэгтэй болно. Ингээд танд тус болох үүднээс TOEFL-ийн шалгалтанд хэрэглэгддэг хамгийн түгээмэл 500 үгийг толилуулж байна.


ABANDON: To give up completely – abandoned the sinking ship.

Synonyms: relinquish, forgo, forsake

ABASH: To lose self-confidence; to confuse, put to shame – abashed before the assembled dignitaries.

Synonyms: fluster, disconcert, discomfit, discompose

Antonym: (adj.) self-possessed

ABDICATE: To give up claim to – abdicated the throne

Synonyms: renounce, abandon, relinquish

ABET: To encourage -or support – treacherously abetted the enemy.

Synonyms: spur, incite

Antonym: deter

ABRIDGE: To shorten – abridged his lengthy speech.

Synonyms: curtail, diminish, retrench

Anthonyms: protract, elongate, amplify

ABROGATE: To abolish or render void – a treaty abrogated by mutual consent.

Synonyms: annul, nullify, rescind, void

ABSTEMIOUS: Moderate in the use of food or drink – abstemiousin his habits.

Synonym: temperate

ACADEMIC: Pertaining to school; theoretical academic interests; an academic discussionwith no practical implications.

Synonym: scholastic

ACCEDE: To agree to -accede to a request.

Synonym: assent

Antonym: demur

ACCELERATE: – To quicken, speed tip – took an accelerated course in order to graduate early.

Synonym: expedite (adj. expeditious)

Antonym: retard

ACCOLADE: An award or salute – a tremendous accolade for a returning hero.

Synonyms: tribute, ovation

ACCORD: Agreement or harmony – in full accord with his view.

Synonyms: concord, concurrence

Antonyms:dissension, discord

ACRIMONIOUS: Sharp or harsh in language or temper – stung by the acrimonious remark.

Synonyms:caustic, acerb, pungent, tart, mordant, acrid; (noun) asperity

Antonyms:suave, affable

ACUMEN: Keenness of mind or insight – showing exceptional business acumen.

Synonyms:perspicacity, discernment, perception


ADMONISH (nounADMONITION): To warn or find fault gently – admonishing the unruly child.

Synonyms:chide, caution, reprimand, reprehend, reproach

ADVERSARY: (adj.: ADVERSE): An opponent – his adversary in a bitter debate.


Antonyms:cohort, confederate, ally, accomplice

ADVERSITY: Misfortune – calm in the face of adversity.

Synonyms:affliction, mischance, reverses

AESTHETIC: Pertaining to the beautiful – interested in aesthetic values rather than in purely practical affairs.

AFFABLE: Sociable, courteous, and agreeable in manner a much admired, affable gentleman.

Synonyms: civil, complaisant, benign, gracious, genial, urbane, cordial

Antonyms:curt, brusque, rude, boorish, surly

AFFLUENT: Prosperous, flourishing; copious – a large bequest from an affluent grandfather.

Synonyms:opulent, profuse

Antonyms:destitute, impecunious

AGGRESSIVE (noun: AGGRESSION. an unprovoked attack): self-assertive; attacking, offensive – annoyed people by his aggressive attitude;

Synonyms:bumptious, officious, obtrusive

Antonyms:meek, humble, retiring, diffident

ALACRITY: Eagerness; cheerful promptness – responded to the flattering offer with alacrity.

Synonyms:celerity, briskness, energy, animation

Antonyms:apathy, nonchalance, sluggishness, lethargy, phlegmatism

ALIENATE: To estrange – altenated by his gruff manner.

ALLAY: To calm; to lessen in severity – at ease now that his fears have been allayed.

Synonyms:appease, alleviate, pacify, assuage, abate, mitigate, propitiate, mollify, placate

Antonyms:intensify, aggravate

ALLUDE (noun: ALLUSION): To refer to indirectly – alluded quite subtly to his friend’s misfortune.

Synonyms:insinuate, intimate, imply

Antonyms:refer, cite

ALLURE: To tempt by flattery or an attractive offer – allured by the prospect of a new job.

Synonyms:lure, decoy, inveigle, entice, seduce, wheedle, beguile, cajole


AMBIGUOUS: Uncertain, vague, capable of being inter- in more than one way – puzzled by the ambiguous statement.

Synonyms:hazy, obscure, equivocal, dubious, nebulous

Antonyms:explicit, unquestionable

AMENABLE: Obedient; willing to submit – amenable to the suggestion.

Synonyms:tractable, docile, responsive

Antonyms:intractable, refractory, recalcitrant

AMIABLE: Good-natured; friendly – attracted friends by his amiable disposition.


ANACHRONISM: A thing placed or occurring out of its normal time – A machine gun at the Battle of Yorktown would be an anachronism.

ANALOGY (adj.: ANALOGOUS): A relation between two things shown in the resemblance not of the things themselves but of their characteristics- He indicated points of analogy between the two situations.

Synonyms:correspondence, affinity

Antonym: anomaly (a deviation from the general rule)

ANARCHY: State of confusion or lawlessness – a country brought to utter anarchy by civil war.

Synonyms: chaos, pandemonium

ANIMUS: A feeling of hatred-felt no animus, even against the enemy.

Synonyms: enmity, rancor, malevolence, animosity

Antonym: amity

ANNALS: Historical records – in the annals of literature.

ANONYMOUS: Of unknown authorship-an anonymous publication.

ANTHOLOGY: A collection of choice literary works – an anthology of modern poetry.

ANTITHESIS (adj.: ANTITHETICAL): Contrast; the direct opposite – His selfish attitude seemed to me the antithesis o patriotism.

APATHY (adj.: APATHETIC): Lack of feeling, emotion, or interest – attributed his failure to apathy, rather than lack of ability.

Synonyms: torpor, lethargy, sluggishness, listlessness, languor, lassitude, dispassion; (verb) languish

Antonyms:zeal, animation

APPREHENSIVE (verb: APPREHEND): Fearful – Being unprepared, John is apprehensive of the examination.

APPRISE: To inform -apprisedhis lieutenants of the new situation.

APPROBATION: Approval; praise -a plan that met with hearty approbation.

Synonyms:sanction, commendation

Synonyms:sanction, commendation



(1) Likely; inclined or disposed – apt to succeed. Synonym: prone

(2) Fit, suitable – an apt remark.

Synonyms: appropriate, felicitous

(3) Skillful, expert – apt at woodcarving.

Synonyms: deft, dextrous, adept. Antonym: inept

ARBITER: A person who has authority to decide matters in dispute – a fair decision rendered by the arbiter.

Synonyms: mediator, arbitrator

ARCHETYPE: An original pattern – copies reproduced from the archetype.

Synonym: prototype

Antonyms: Stereotype, facsimile, replica

ARID: Dry; barren – the arid desert land.

Synonyms. jejune, parched

Antonyms: arable, fertile

ARISTOCRACY: Government by the best people; privileged class -special privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy.

Synonym: oligarchy

Antonym: democracy

ARMISTICE: A temporary suspension of hostilities. The armistice halted the war.

Synonym: truce

ARTFUL: Sly; crafty – attained his mean objective by artful measures.

Synonyms: cunning, wily, adroit, ingenious, guileful

Antonyms: guileless, ingenuous, artless

ARTICULATE (verb): To speak clearly or distinctly – articulated slowly so that he could not be misunderstood.

(adj.): Capable of speech; distinct, clear – an articulate man, always ready to give his views.

ASCETIC: Rigorously self-denying – pursued the ascetic life of a monk.

Synonyms: austere, abstinent

Antonyms: wanton, self-indulgent

ASKANCE: With distrust – looked askance at the forged signature.

ASSEVERATE: To declare positively; to confirm – asseverated his views with conviction.

Synonyms:assert, avouch, aver, avow, allege

Antonyms:gainsay, controvert, recant, rescind, abjure, disavow

ASSIDUOUS: Industrious – an assiduous worker, toiling long hours.

Synonyms:sedulous, attentive, diligent, indefatigable

Antonyms:indolent, slothful

ASYLUM: A place offering shelter and retreat -found asylum from persecution.

Synonyms:sanctuary, refuge

ATHEIST: One who denies that God exists – The atheist declared, “There is no God.”

Synonyms:infidel, agnostic, skeptic

ATTRIBUTE (verb): Assign –attributed his success to bard work.

Synonym: ascribe

(noun): An inherent quality -Generosity was his outstanding attribute.

AUGMENT: To increase or enlarge – an army augmented by numerous enlistments.

Synonyms: enhance, amplify – Antonyms: abate, curtail

AUSPICIOUS: Indicating a happy outcome – The prospect for this project appears auspicious.

Synonyms:propitious, fortunate

Antonyms:ominous, foreboding

AUTHENTIC: Genuine -proved to be an authentic document.

Synonyms:veritable, bona fide

Antonyms;apocryphal, counterfeit, spurious, bogus

AUTOCRATIC: Despotic – feared by the masses as an autocratic ruler.



AVARICE: Excessive greed – a fortune accumulated by avarice and miserliness.

Synonyms:covetousness, cupidity, avidity


AWRY: Unsymmetrical; not straight – the picture, hanging awry on the wall.


BANAL: Lacking in freshness, originality, or vigor-bored by his banal remarks.

Synonyms:commonplace, hackneyed, prosaic, trite, stereotyped, vapid

Antonyms:racy, original, vivid

BANEFUL (noun: BANE: poison; source of harm): Destructive, poisonous – a baneful effect, causing serious injury.

Synonyms: deleterious, pernicious, virulent, noxious, toxic


BANTER: Good-natured teasing or ridicule-The two wits I exchanged banter, to the amusement of the audience.

Synonyms:raillery, chaff

BATON: A stick or staff – The conductor wielded his baton gracefully.

BELIE: To give a false idea of – His gracious manner belled his. evil purpose.


BELLICOSE; Inclined to quarrel; warlike – His bellicose attitude often got John into fights.

Synonyms: pugnacious, contentious, disputatious

Antonyms: pacific, conciliatory

BELLIGERENT: Engaged in war – two belligerent nations warring fiercely.

BENEVOLENT: Kindly; charitable – like a benevolent monarch, bestowing many favors.

Synonyms: benign, benignant, gracious, magnanimous

Antonyms: malevolent, malignant

BEREAVE: To deprive or leave desolate by loss – a widow just bereaved of her husband.

BESMIRCH: To soil or dirty – besmirched his opponent’s good name with vile epithets.

Synonyms: stilly, defile, smirch, bespatter

BIASED: Prejudiced – misled by a biased point of view.

Synonyms:bigoted, arbitrary, partial, partisan

Antonyms:disinterested, equitable

BIBLIOPHILE: A lover of books – The bibliophile fingeredthe old book fondly.

Antonym: bibliophobe

BIZARRE: Queer; unusual in appearance- bizarre clothes, outlandish in the extreme.

Synonyms:odd, fantastic, grotesque, eccentric

BLAND: Gentle; polite; agreeable – a bland diet, without irritating foods.

Synonyms: mild, suave (affable or persuasive in manner), soothing, non-irritating

Antonyms: piquant, tart, racy, caustic, acrid, pungent

BLANDISHMENT: A flattering speech or act – attracted people by his blandishments.

BLEMISH (verb): To scar or spoil – Bad associates blemished his character

(noun): A disfigurement, defect – a character without a blemish.

BLIGHT: To ruin or decay – the rotting wheat-, blighted by incessant rain.

Synonyms:wither, blast

BLITHE: Gay and light-hearted in spirit or mood – spread cheer with her blithe spirit.

Synonyms: jocund, merry, joyous

Antonyms: dejected, forlorn, abject

BOG: A swamp – sank into the spongy bog.

Synonyms: morass, fen, quagmire, mire

BOMBASTIC (noun: BOMBAST): High-sounding; pretentious in language – a bombastic speech, inflated with meaningless high-flown words.

Synonyms: ranting, pompous, fustian

BOORISH: Unrefined in speech or manners – exhibited the boorish manners of a backwoodsman.

Synonyms:churlish, uncouth. uncultured, crass

Antonym: suave

BUCOLICPertaining to the country – a bucolic poem de- the joys of the shepherd.

Synonyms:pastoral, rustic, rural

BUFFOON: A clown – acting like a buffoon, full of ludicrous tricks.

Synonym: harlequin


  1. An embankment used as a fortification – a lofty bulwark for defense.

Synonym: rampart

  1. A person, idea, or object serving as a protection – acted as a bulwark in the fight against crime.

BUMPTIOUS: Obnoxiously conceited or self-assertive – a bumptious monitor, puffed up with his own importance,

Synonyms: aggressive, arrogant, contumelious, overbearing

CABAL: A small group of persons engaged in plotting – a cabal of prominent persons united to overthrow the government.

Synonyms: junto, faction

CACOPHONOUS: Unharmonious sounding – a cacophonous blare of trumpets, noisy and discordant.

Synonyms: dissonant, discordant, blatant, strident, raucous Antonyms: mellifluous, euphonious, dulcet

CADAVEROUS: Corpselike; hence, haggard, pale -His face appeared cadaverous from long imprisonment.

Synonyms: ghastly, gaunt, pallid (noun: pallor), wan, ashen

Antonyms: rubicund, florid

CALLOUS: Unfeeling or insensitive – made callous by long suffering.

Synonyms: insensible, obdurate

CALUMNIATE: To accuse falsely or maliciously in order to injure another’s reputation; slander – calumniated his political opponent by spreading false rumors.

Synonyms: asperse, vilify, defame, scandalize

CANDID (noun: CANDOR): Frank, outspoken; impartial a candid reply that could hardly be more forthright.

Synonyms: artless, ingenuous, unbiased

Antonyms: guileful, evasive

CANTANKEROUS: Ill-natured; quarrelsome – showed a cantankerous and sullen disposition.

Synonyms:petulant, peevish, contentious, pugnacious, testy, choleric, fretful

Antonyms:amiable, affable, equable

CAPRICIOUS: Inclined, through some whim or fancy change the mind, purpose, or actions suddenly – a capricious person, undependable in mood or temper.

Synonyms:fickle, fitful, changeable, erratic, inconstant, crotchety, whimsical, mercurial

Antonyms:steadfast, constant, even-tempered

CAPTIOUS: Quick to find fault about trifles- a captious critic pouncing on slight laws.

Synonyms:hypercritical, carping, carviling, censorious

CARICATURE: A picture or other description of a person which exaggerates ludicrously one or more of his distinctive features – not a realistic portrait but a malicious caricature.

CASTIGATE: To punish or criticize severely – castigated for using improper language.

Synonyms:reprove, upbraid, reprehend, censure, reprimand, chasten

Antonyms:commend, eulogize, laud

CELESTIAL: Pertaining to the sky; heavenly-a celestial pageant of bright stars.

Synonyms:ethereal; (noun) firmament

CHAUVINIST. An extreme patriot-a chauvinist with most pride in his country.


CHICANERY: Trickery, deception,- practised chicanery all his shady dealings.

Synonyms:duplicity, craft, stratagem, wile, subterfuge

CHRONIC: Continuing a long time; habitual-a. chronic complaint, persisting for years.

Synonyms:persistent, unremitting, inveterate, incessant, constant

Antonyms:intermittent, sporadic, infrequent

CIRCUMSPECT: Cautious – looked about him circumspectly.

Synonyms:prudent, vigilant, discreet, wary

Antonyms:rash, indiscreet, reckless, precipitate, foothardy, temerarious, headstrong

CIRCUMVENT: To gain an advantage by the use of trick to evade by the use of deception; to go around – circumvented thelaw by evasive practices.

Synonyms:thwart, balk, outwit, delude


  1. Of or having to do with citizens or the state – We I civil duties as well as civil liberties.
  2. Polite, courteous – answered in a civil fashion.

Synonyms: respectful, gracious

CLAMOROUS: Loud and noisy – a clamorous outburst the crowd outside.

Synonyms: vociferous, obstreperous, blatant, raucous, strident

Antonyms: muted, quiet

CLANDESTINE: Secret; stealthy – a clandestine meeting known only to a few.

Synonyms: furtive, covert, surreptitious

Antonyms: overt, manifest, above-board

CLEMENT: Merciful; gentle – a clement judge who tempered justice with leniency.

Synonyms: compassionate, forbearing

Antonyms: relentless, ruthless

COALITION (verb: COALESCE): Alliance; merging of various units into one unit – three parties forming a coalition to rule the country.

Synonyms: amalgamation, consolidation, fusion

COERCION: Compelling a person by physical force or other means to do something against his will – rendered his services without the slightest coercion.

Synonyms: constraint, restraint, impelling

COGENT: Having the force to compel, usually by appealing to reason – persuaded by cogentarguments.

Synonym: persuasive

COLLUSION: Working together secretly for an evil purpose – acted in collusion to overthrow the government.

Synonyms: collaboration, conspiracy, conniving, machination

COMMODIOUS: Roomy – a commodious apartment.

Synonyms: spacious, capacious, ample

COMPATIBLE: Harmonious; able, to get along together parted company because they were not compatible.

Synonyms: congruous, consistent

Antonyms: incongruous, discordant, incompatible

COMPENDIUM (adj.: COMPENDIOUS): A brief summary of the main ideas of a larger work – a compendium of chemistry in a slim volume.

Synonyms: synopsis, digest, precis, abstract, epitome

COMPENSATION: Payment for services – just compensation for his labor.

Synonyms: stipend, remuneration, recompense, emolument

COMPLACENT: Self-satisfied – looked on his own performance with a complacent smile.

Synonym: smug

COMPUNCTION: Regret for wrongdoing – displayed slight compunction for his misdeed.

Synonyms: contrition, penitence, atonement, remorse, qualm

CONCEDE: To yield; to admit as true; to grant – conceded victory to a superior force.

Synonyms: acquiesce, capitulate

CONDIGN: Well-deserved (applied chiefly to punishment) – received condign punishment for his crime.

CONDOLE (noun: CONDOLENCE): To express sympathy with another in sorrow, pain, or misfortune – condoled with each other in their grief.

Synonyms: commiserate, show compassion, solace

CONDONE: To forgive or overlook (an offense) – condoned the deed, in view of the offender’s age.

Synonyms: extenuate, palliate, mitigate, gloss

CONFEDERATE (noun): A person allied with others for a special purpose (frequently a bad one) – joined his confederate in secret enterprise.

Synonyms: collaborator, accomplice

(adj.): United or allied in a conspiracy – two confederate groups hurrying to their rendezvous.


(1) Possessing similar interests and tastes; able to get on well with others – congenial people with similar backgrounds.

Synonym: compatible

(2) Agreeable – congenial to his taste.

CONJECTURE: To guess – Without facts, we can only conjecture about his guilt.

Synonyms: surmise, presume


(1) To set apart as sacred – consecrate the battlefield with a monument to the dead heroes. Synonyms: hallow, sanctify Antonym: desecrate

(2) To devote or dedicate to some aim – consecrated his life to teaching.

CONSENSUS. General agreement – The consensus of the committee was that no action should be taken.

Synonym: accord

CONSTERNATION: Amazement; lack of courage caused by fearful prospect – The threat struck deep consternation into John.

Synonyms: dismay, bewilderment

CONSTRUE (noun: CONSTRUCTION): To interpret, explain the sense of, or analyze – construedthe statement to his own advantage.

CONSUMMATE (adj.): Perfect or highly accomplished – achieved with consummate skill.

Antonyms:botched. bungled, inept

(verb): To complete, bring to perfection – consummated the deal without delay.

CONTEMPTUOUS: Expressive of contempt (an emotion involving anger and disgust) – cast a contemptuous look at his subordinate.

Synonyms: supercilious, scornful, disdainful, contumelious

CONVIVIAL: Festive; gay – a convivial party.

Synonyms: jovial, jocund, mirthful

Antonyms: lugubrious, dolorous, mirthless

COPIOUS: Plentiful – shed copious tears at the bad news.

Synonyms. profuse, bountiful, abundant

Antonyms: meager, scant

CORPULENT: Fat – corpulent due to excessive eating.

Synonyms: obese, portly

Antonyms: gaunt, lank, emaciated, peaked

COSMOPOLITAN (noun): One who is at home in all countries – A cosmopolitan can feel at ease anywhere in the world.

(adj.): Free from local prejudices – a world-wide traveler, cosmopolitan in tastes and attitudes.

Synonyms: Catholic

Antonyms: parochial, provincial

COTERIE: A group of people joined by common interests a coterie of select friend.

Synonym: clique

COUNTENANCE (noun): A face – His countenance expressed his complete disgust.

Synonym: visage

(verb): To approve – refused to countenance disrespectful conduct.

Synonym: sanction

CRASS: Coarse and stupid – displayed crass ignorance.

Synonym: gross

CRAVEN (noun): Coward – the deed of a craven, motivated by fear.

Synonym. Poltroon

(adj.): Cowardly – a craven act which shocked the world.

Synonyms: pusillanimous, dastardly.

Antonyms: stalwart, intrepid, valiant, stout-hearted

CREDENCE: Trust or belief – gave little credence to the rumor.

Synonym: conviction

Antonym: skepticism

CREDIBLE: Worthy of belief – a credible story, true to life.

Antonym: incredible

CREDITABLE: Deserving or reflecting Credit or honor – applauded for his creditable performance.

Synonyms: praiseworthy, meritorious, commendable

Antonyms: discreditable, infamous, opprobrious, ignominious

CREDULOUS: Inclined to believe anything; easily imposed upon – a credulous fool whom anyone can dupe.

Synonym: gullible

Antonyms: incredulous, skeptical

CRINGE: To shrink in fear – cringing before superior force.

Synonyms, cower, flinch, fawn, truckle, wince

CRUCIAL: Decisive or critical; difficult – the crucial event that decided the outcome.

CRYPTIC: Containing hidden meaning – a cryptic message, difficult to decipher.

Synonyms: occult, enigmatic

Antonyms: palpable, manifest

CULPABLE: Deserving blame or censure – removed from office for culpable negligence.

Synonyms: censurable, reprehensible

CUMBROUS: Burdensome and clumsy – a cumbrous knapsack, impeding his march.

Synonyms: cumbersome, unwieldy, bulk

CURB: To control, check, or restrain – forcibly curbed the people’s protest.

Synonyms: repress, subdue

CURSORY: Hurried; hence, superficial- Time permitted only a cursory examination.

Antonyms: painstaking, meticulous

CURT: Rudely abrupt -offended by the curt response.

Synonyms: blunt, brusque, bluff

Antonyms: affable, civil

CYNICAL: Sneeringly distrustful of the good motives or conduct of others – belittled the hero with a cynical remark.

Synonyms: sarcastic, surly

DEARTH: Scarcity – a dearth of news, brought about by censorship.

Antonyms: plethora, abundance

DEFERENCE: Submitting to the wishes or judgment of another – yielded out of deference to the old man.

Synonyms: respect, complaisance, veneration

Antonym: recalcitrance

DEITY: A god -The sun was a deity to ancient peoples.

Synonym: divinity

DELECTABLE: Very pleasing – a delectable meal, tastefully prepared.

DELETE: To erase or cancel, take out or remove – deletedan offensive phrase.

Synonyms: expunge, censor, efface, eradicate

DELINEATE: To sketch or portray – striking features, delineated by a master artist.

DELINQUENT (noun): An offender – found to be a delinquent by the court.

(adj.): Failing to fulfill an obligation – too many people who are delinquent in meeting their civic duties.

Synonym: derelict

DELUGE: A great flood; downpour – a spring deluge which caused the river to overflow.

DEMAGOGUE: A leader who tries to stir the passions of people for his own purposes – the mob roused by an unprincipled demagogue.

DEMEANOR: Behavior; bearing – carrying himself with a proud demeanor.

Synonyms: deportment, mien

DEMURE: Affectedly or falsely modest or prim; serious demure as a Victorian maiden.

Synonyms: sedate, staid, decorous, prudish, coy

Antonyms: immodest, frivolous

DENOUNCE (noun: DENUNCIATION): To speak against – denounced by the press as a traitor.

Synonyms: stigmatize, censure, reprehend, castigate

Antonyms: laud, eulogize

DEPLETE: To empty or to use up – depleted the public treasury by vast building programs.

Synonyms: exhaust, drain

Antonyms: replenish; (adj.) replete

DEPLORE: To express sorrow or grief over – a lamentable situation deplored by all parties.

Synonyms: lament, decry, grieve

DEPRAVED: Of low morals; corrupt – a depraved mind, devising evil.

Synonyms: debased, wicked, vicious, perverted

DEPRECATE: To plead or argue against a certain course of action – deprecated theproposal severely.

Synonyms: remonstrate, protest, decry, expostulate

Antonym: sanction

DEPRECIATE: To belittle or speak slightingly of – depreciated John’s acting ability.

Synonyms: disparage, derogate (adj. derogatory)

Antonyms: enhance, magnify, extol, laud, eulogize

DEVASTATION: Widespread ruin – the city left in utter devastation by war.

Synonyms: destruction, desolation


(1) Winding; indirect – took a devious, rather than the direct way home.

Synonym: circuitous

(2) Straying from the right course – used devious means to attain his wicked ends.

Synonyms: crooked, erring

DEVOID: Lacking in; not possessing – a speech devoid ofeven a trace of ill-will.

Synonym: destitute

Antonyms: abounding, prevalent

DEVOUT: Devoted to religious observances – devout in his regularity of attendance at worship.

Synonyms: pious, religious

Antonym: impious

DICTUM: Art authoritative statement; a saying-an imperial dictum demanding instant compliance.

DIDACTIC: Designed to teach, imparting a lesson – a poem with a didactic purpose.

Synonym: pedagogical

DIFFIDENT: Lacking in self-confidence- too diffident to lead a group.

Synonyms: shy, timid, reserved, reticent, retiring

Antonyms:forward, aggressive

DILEMMA: A situation calling for a choice between two equally difficult alternatives; hence, a difficult or perplexing situation – faced with a dilemma defying solution.

Synonyms:predicament, quandary, plight

DILETTANTE: One who dabbles in the fine arts for amusement only and without concentrated study – a doctor by profession, a dilettante in art.

Synonyms:amateur, connoisseur

DISCONCERT: To confuse; to embarrass – disconcerted by his suspicious stare.

Synonyms:perturb, discomfit, discompose, abash, disquiet, fluster

DISCONSOLATE: Depressed; without hope or possibility of consolation – made disconsolate by abject poverty.

Synonyms:inconsolable, dejected

Antonyms:blithesome, carefree

DISCOURSE: To converse or talk; to discuss – discoursed at length on the rise of political parties.

DISCRETE: Separate – two discrete issues, totally unrelated.

DISCURSIVE: Rambling from one subject to another – a discursive letter, covering many topics.

Synonyms:desultory, digressive

DISPARITY (adj.: DISPARATE): Inequality; difference in image, quantity, character, or rank – great disparity between promise and performance.

DISPASSIONATE: Free from feeling or partiality – coldly dispassionate as the chairman of the meeting

Synonyms:palm, impartial


DISPATCH (verb): To do speedily; to send off – dispatched with remarkable promptness.

Synonym: expedite

(noun): A speedy performance; the sending off of something – done with all possible dispatch.

Synonyms: celerity, alacrity

DISPEL: To drive away; to scatter – dispelled a doubt that had lingered.

Synonyms:dissipate, disperse, diffuse

DISSENT (noun: DISSENSION): To disagree; to differ in opinion – He dissented violently, rejecting compromise.

DISSOLUTE: Living loosely; unrestrained in conduct or morals – his life wasted by dissoluteconduct.

Synonyms:debauched, dissipated, profligate

DISTRAUGHT: Mentally distressed; distracted – distraught by trials and tribulations.

Synonym: harassed

DIVERSE: (verb: DIVERSIFY; noun: DIVISIBILITY): Varied; different – two diverse characters; one candid, the other insincere.

Synonym: multifarious

DIVERTING: Entertaining – a diverting one of the most amusing I’ve ever seen.

DIVULGE: To make public or reveal – refused to divulge his source of information.

Synonyms: disclose, impart

DOGMATIC: Positive in expressing an opinion; asserting an opinion as though it were an undisputed fact – spoken dogmatically, as if the speaker considered himself infallible.

Synonyms: overbearing, opinionated, peremptory, dictatorial

DOLOROUS: Sorrowful; mournful – a dolorous song full of sorrow for past joys.

Synonyms: doleful, lugubrious, grievous

Antonyms: jocund, blithe, mirthful

DYNAMIC: Forceful – possessed dynamic energy, tireless and powerful.

Synonym: energetic

Antonyms: static, inert, dormant, torpid, sluggish, quiescent

ECCLESIASTIC (adj.): Pertaining to the clergy or the church – recognized as an authority in ecclesiastic matters. Antonyms: secular, lay

(noun): A clergyman – an ecclesiastic of liberal views.

EDICT: A public command or proclamation issued by an authority – proclaimed by royal edict.

Synonym: decree

EDIFY: To instruct or uplift, particularly in morals or religion – a story that edifiesthe reader, as well as entertains him

EFFETE: No longer productive; hencelacking in or, worn out – powerful in ancient days, now an effete civilization.

EGOTISTIC: Conceited – an egotisticperson, flourishing on praise.

Synonyms:egocentric, vain


EGREGIOUS: Outstandingly bad an egregiousmistake with serious implications.

EJACULATE: To exclaim or utter suddenly – ejaculateda cry of horror.

ELICIT: To draw out – elicitedno response from the audience.

Synonyms:evoke, extract, extort

ELUCIDATE: To make clear; to explain – elucidatedhis theory so that even a schoolboy could understand it.


EMISSARY: A person sent on an errand or mission – delegated his emissary to conclude a pact.

ENGENDER: To cause, produce, or stir up-an act that engenderedgood will.

ENNUI: Boredom; weariness of mind-fell asleep at the meeting from sheer ennui.

ENSUE: To follow or result-Silence ensuedwhen the leader arose to speak.

ENTREAT: To beg earnestly – entreatedthe judge to show mercy.

Synonyms:solicit, supplicate, beseech, implore, importune;

(adj.) importunate, mendicant, suppliant

EPHEMERAL: Very short-lived – an ephemeraljoy, lasting but a day.

Synonyms:fleeting, transitory, transient, evanescent


EPICUREAN (noun):A person devoted to luxurious living and pleasure – an epicureanseeking to enjoy every meal.

(adj.): Pleasure-loving – His entire existence demonstrated his epicureantastes.

EPIGRAM: A brief pointed saying – a speech full of original epigrams.

Synonyms: maxim proverb, adage

EPITAPH: A tombstone inscription – an epitaphengraved on marble.

EPITHET: A phrase that describes a quality (good or bad) in a person or thing – “Glaring” error is a commonly used epithet.

Synonyms:characterization , appellation

EQUANIMITY (adj.: EQUABLE): Evenness of temper or mind – suffered his cruel fate with equanimity.

Synonyms: serenity, composure, imperturbability, aplomb

ERR (noun: ERRATUM): To be mistaken or go astray – To err is human, to forgive divine.

Synonyms: stray, blunder

ERRATIC: Irresponsible, eccentric; lacking a fixed purpose erratic behavior, reflecting his queer ideas.

ERUDITE: Learned – an erudite person, an editor of many books.

Synonyms: scholarly , knowing

ESOTERIC: Understood by only a select few – an esoteric subject, discussed only by scholars.

Synonyms: abstruse, recondite

EXCEPTIONABLE: Objectionable – exceptionable behavior, universally criticized.

Synonyms:questionable, reprehensible, censurable

Antonym: laudable

EXCULPATE: To free from blame – exculpated by a jury.

Synonyms: vindicate, exonerate, absolve, acquit

Antonyms: arraign, indict, inculpate

EXEMPLARY (noun: EXEMPLAR): Serving as a model; commendable – exemplary conduct approved by all.

Synonyms: illustrative, typical; praiseworthy, laudable

EXODUS: Departure, emigration – the pathetic exodus of refugees from their homeland.

EXOTIC: Strange and foreign – an exotic costume imported from Asia.

EXPATIATE: To speak or write at great length – He expatiated on the subject for two hours.

Synonym: dilate

EXPATRIATE (verb): To banish or exile; to withdraw from one’s country – expatriated for treachery to his country.

(noun): An expatriated person – expatriates who left the United States to live in Paris.

EXPEDIENT (adj.): Convenient in helping to attain some purpose – found it expedient to maintain silence at that moment.

Synonyms: opportune, seasonable

(noun): A means to accomplish something – tried all expedients to achieve a quick result.

EXPLOIT (verb): To use for one’s selfish purpose – refugees exploited by unscrupulous employers.

(noun): A brilliant deed – lauded for his exploits in science.

Synonym: feat

EXPOUND (noun: EXPOSITION): To set forth in detail; to explain – expounded his theory in a learned article.

EXPURGATE: To purify (usually a piece of writing) of offensive material – expurgate all obscenities before the book could be sold.

Synonyms: purge, delete

EXTEMPORANEOUS: Done or spoken on the spur of the moment or without preparation – an extemporaneous speech.

Synonyms: impromptu, offhand

EXTINCT: No longer existing or active – the extinct dinosaur, alive only in history.

Synonym: defunct

Antonym: extant

EXTIRPATE: To root out, destroy totally – extirpated the cause of trouble.

Synonyms: eradicate, exterminate, efface, obliterate

EXTRANEOUS. Not essential; foreign; irrelevant – excluded material extraneous to the subject.

Synonyms: extrinsic, adventitious

Antonyms: germane, intrinsic, inherent, relevant, pertinent

EXULTATION: Great rejoicing – received the good news with exultation.

Synonym: jubilation

FACADE: Front or face, especially of a building – a facade of marble.

FACETIOUS: Given to joking or inappropriate gaiety; said in fun – brightened the evening with his facetious remarks.

Synonyms: jocose, droll, flippant, frivolous

Antonyms: solemn, grave, saturnine

FALLACIOUS (noun: FALLACY): Unsound; misleading; deceptive – led astray by fallaciousreasoning and plans.

FALLIBLE: Liable to make mistakes or be deceived – Being human, Tom was naturally fallible.

Antonyms: infallible, unerring

FATHOM: To penetrate and understand – difficult to fathom his mysterious actions.

FATUOUS: Foolish; silly – a fatuous suggestion that struck us as stupid.

Synonyms: inane, vacuous, puerile

Antonyms: judicious, sagacious, sage

FEALTY: Faithfulness – The soldiers were pledged to fealty to their ruler.

Synonyms: allegiance, constancy, fidelity

Antonyms: disloyalty; infidelity, treachery

FEASIBLE: Workable – a feasible plan, proved practical by – previous experience.

Antonym: impracticable

245 FEIGN (noun: FEINT): To pretend – He feigned to be angry, but we saw through his pretense.

Synonyms: dissemble, sham, dissimulate, affect


(1) A state of happiness – promoted felicity in the nation.

Synonym: bliss

(2) A high ability – lie has a felicity of language, mastery of the well-chosen phrase.

FERVID: Spirited; ardent – a fervid debater, full of emotion.

Synonyms: perfervid, impassioned, zealous, fervent, vehement

FESTOON (noun): A garland of flowers, leaves, etc. hung between two points – the room bright with festoons of Thanksgiving decorations.

(verb): To hang with festoons – a room festooned with spring flowers.


(1) Something that is believed to have magical powers – savages worshipping the fetish in a ceremonial dance.

Synonym: charm, talisman, amulet

(2) An object of unreasoning devotion and worship – Photography, begun as a hobby, became a fetish.

FIASCO: A ludicrous and complete failure – all his glorious plans ending in a fiasco.

Synonym: debacle

FICTITIOUS: Unreal; made-up – used a fictitious name to avoid being recognized.

Synonym: fabricated

FLACCID: Lacking firmness – muscles grown flaccid after the illness.

Synonyms: flabby, limp

FLAGRANT: Outstandingly bad – condemned for his flagrant abuse of power.

Synonyms: glaring, scandalous, notorious, conspicuous, gross

FLAMBOYANT: Elaborately showy – written in a flamboyant, style, full of highly decorative imagery.

Synonyms: florid, ornate, resplendent, embellished, garish, gaudy, gorgeous, rococo

Antonym: somber

FLAUNT: Display or wave boastfully – flaunted the excellent report before his delighted parents.

FLEETING: Passing swiftly -the fleeting hours of happiness

Synonyms: transitory, fugitive

FLUCTUATE: To waver from one course to another; to vary irregularly – his mood fluctuating with every hour.

Synonyms: oscillate, vacillate, undulate, sway

FORBEAR (noun: FORBEARANCE): To exercise self control; to keep from – forbearing to shoot the animal despite temptation.

Synonyms: restrain, abstain

FORENSIC: Pertaining to public discussion or law courts – a lawyer gifted in forensic debate.

Synonyms: rhetorical, oratorical

FORTUITOUS: Accidental – a fortuitous meeting with a friend in need.

Synonyms: casual, incidental, adventitious, random

FRACAS: A disorderly quarrel – A fracas broke up the meeting.

Synonyms: brawl, altercation, fray, wrangle, imbroglio

FRUSTRATE: To prevent (the attainment of an object); to defeat or render ineffectual – His scholastic progress was frustrated by a serious illness.

Synonyms: balk, thwart, foil, baffle, obstruct, discomfit

Antonym: abet

FULSOME: Disgustingly excessive – nauseated by fulsome praise.

GARNISH: To trim or decorate – dishes garnished attractively with greens.

Synonyms: adorn, deck

GENEALOGY: A record of a person’s or a family’s ancestors or relatives – an interesting genealogy, including saints and sinners.

Synonym: lineage

GENESIS: Origin – chemistry, which had its genesis in alchemy.

Synonym: inception

GESTICULATE: To make gestures, or indicate feelings by. motions – gesticulated wildly to show his distress.

GHASTLY: Horrible, deathlike – a ghastly disaster which shocked the world.

Synonyms: gruesome, grisly, pallid, macabre, grim, lurid

GIBE (variant spelling: JIBE): To laugh at; to utter with scorn – gibed at his enemy mercilessly.

Synonyms: mock, sneer, jeer, scoff, flout, deride (adj.: derisive), rail, taunt

GLIB: Smooth-spoken, fluent – a glib liar, distorting the truth effortlessly.

GLUTTONOUS (noun. GLUTTON; verb: GLUT): Inclined to cat to excess – gulped down his food in gluttonous fashion.

Synonyms:voracious, intemperate

GOSSAMER (noun): A very thin gauzelike fabric or structure – a poem so delicate that it seemed an unreal gossamer.

(adj.): Thin and light – the gossamer wings of a dragon fly.

Synonyms: diaphanous, flimsy, gauzelike Antonyms: substantial, ponderous

GREGARIOUS: Habitually fond of associating in a company or herd – gregarious sheep; that gregarious animal, man.

Antonyms:lone, aloof

GRIMACE: A distortion of the face to express an attitude or feeling – a grimace that was more expressive than words.

HAIL: To greet – The crowd hailed the returning hero.

Synonyms: accost, salute

HARANGUE (verb): To deliver a long. noisy speech- harangued the multitude.

Synonyms: rant, declaim

(noun): A loud, tiresome speech – an empty harangue which bored his audience.

Synonym: tirade

HARBINGER, A forerunner; ail announcer – the robin, harbinger of spring.

Synonyms:precursor, herald

HAUGHTY: Proud; looking down with contempt on others – dismissed the messenger in a haughtymanner.

HEEDLESS: Thoughtless; taking little care – rushed into battle, heedless of the danger.

Synonyms: inadvertent, rash, incautious

Antonyms: prudent, circumspect, mindful, wary

HEINOUS: Wicked; hateful – committed a heinous crime.

Synonyms: atrocious, outrageous, monstrous, odious, nefarious, abominable

HERESY: An opinion held in opposition to the traditional view – a view condemned as heresy.

Synonym: heterodoxy

Antonym: orthodoxy

HIATUS: A gap or vacancy; break -left a hiatus on the page where he erased a sentence.


HISTRIONIC: Pertaining to the theater; designed for show – broke into histrionic laughter, hollow and insincere.

Synonyms: dramatic, theatrical

HOAX (noun): A trick or deception; a practical joke – played a hoax upon the credulous public.

Synonym: canard

(verb): To play a trick on; to deceive – He hoaxed the crowd completely with his disguise.

HOMONYM: Two words having the same sound but different meanings – confusing such homonyms as mail add male.

HOVEL: A dirty or wretched dwelling – born in a hovel, died in a mansion.

HYPERBOLE: Extravagant exaggeration for effect – An example of hyperbole: “There are a million objections to the project.”

Synonym: overstatement

Antonym: understatement

HYPOTHESIS: An assumption made for the sake of argument – worked from a fantastic hypothesis.

Synonym: supposition

IDIOSYNCRASY: A. personal peculiarity – Wearing white was one of Whistler’s idiosyncrasies.

Synonyms: eccentricity, foible, mannerism, crotchet, aberration, quirk, singularity

IGNOMINIOUS (noun: IGNOMINY): Incurring public disgrace – suffered an ignominious descent from political power.

Synonyms: infamous, degrading, opprobrious, odious

Antonyms: illustrious, renowned, preeminent

IMMACULATE: Spotless; pure – an immaculate reputation.

Synonyms: undefiled, unsullied, unblemished, untarnished

Antonyms: defiled, sullied, blemished

IMMINENT: Likely to occur soon – stood in imminent peril.

Synonym: impending

IMMUNE (verb: IMMUNIZE): Exempt from; protected from – immune from taxation.

Synonym : unsusceptible

IMPALE: To pierce through with a pointed instrument – impaled a spider to the wall.


(1) To accuse (a public official) of wrongdoing – impeached the judge for accepting a bribe.

Synonym: arraign

(2) To cast discredit upon – impeached his motives.

Synonyms: call in question, discredit

IMPECCABLE: Faultless – performed with impeccable skill.

Synonyms: consummate, irreproachable, unerring, infallible

Antonyms: culpable, fallible

IMPERVIOUS: Incapable of being penetrated – a mind impervious to new ideas.

Synonyms: impermeable, impenetrable

Antonyms: permeable, pervasive

IMPLACABLE: Incapable of being soothed, made peaceful, or forgiving – implacable resentment.

Synonyms: unrelenting, inexorable, unappeasable

Antonyms: placable, forbearing


(1) Implied but not clearly expressed – an implicit agreement.

(2) Unquestioning – implicit confidence.

Synonyms: tacit, implied

Antonym: explicit

IMPORT (noun): Meaning; significance or importance – a matter of great import.

Synonyms: purport, moment, consequence

IMPOSTOR (noun: IMPOSTURE): One who pretends to be what he is notunmasked as an impostor.

Synonyms: quack, mountebank, charlatan, bogus, fraud

IMPRECATION: A curse – hurled imprecations at those who would not listen to him.

Synonyms: execration, malediction, anathema

Antonyms: benediction, benison

IMPREGNABLE: Unconquerable – an impregnable fortress.

Synonym: invincible

Antonym: vulnerable

IMPROPRIETY: Improper act, manners, or expression – guilty of impropriety in public office.

Synonyms: indecency, indecorum

Antonym: amenity

IMPROVIDENT: Lacking in thrift; not providing for future needs – an improvident spender.

Synonyms: prodigal, shiftless

IMPUGN: To attack or criticize as false; to call in question – impugned his honesty.

INCARCERATE: To imprison – crushed his opponents by incarcerating them.

Synonyms: intern, immure

Antonyms: emancipate, enfranchise

INCISIVE: Cutting, penetrating – incisive criticism.

Synonyms: sarcastic, mordant, trenchant, acute

INCOGNITO. With one’s identity concealed – traveled incognito.

INCONTROVERTIBLE: Indisputable – incontrovertible evidence.

Synonyms: irrefutable, -indubitable

INCREMENT: An increase – a salary increment.

Synonym: accrual

INCUMBENT (noun): An officeholder – the incumbent in an election.

(adj.): Obligatory – felt it incumbent to reply.

Synonyms: – mandatory, imperative

INDEFATIGABLE: Untiring – an indefatigable worker.

Synonyms:unflagging, unremitting, persevering

INDIGENOUS: Native – Rice is indigenous to China.

Synonyms:innate, inborn

INDOOMITABLE: Stubborn in determination not to be subdued – indomitable courage.

Synonyms:insuperable, irrepressible, invincible, unyielding

Antonyms:tractable, amenable, docile, submissive

INFERENCE: A conclusion reached by reasoning from data or premises – an inference drawn from his remarks.

Synonyms:deduction, implication

INGENIOUS: Demonstrating originality, skill, or resourcefulness – an ingenious device.

Synonyms:dextrous, inventive, adroit

Antonyms:maladroit, gauche

INGENUOUS: Simple and straightforward; concealing nothing – an ingenuous plan that anyone could see through.

Synonyms: unsophisticated, naive, candid

Antonym: sophisticated

INGRATIATE: To win another’s favor or good opinion tried to ingratiate himself with the politician.

INHIBIT: To check or hinder – inhibited his friend from a foolhardy course.

Synonyms:restrain, curb

Antonym: promote

INNOCUOUS: Harmless; inoffensive – an innocuous remark, but it enraged him.

INNUENDO: An indirect reference or suggestion (frequently derogatory) – conveyed his idea by innuendo.

Synonyms: (verb) intimate, insinuate

INORDINATE: Excessive – spoiled by inordinate praise.

Synonyms: immoderate, intemperate, extravagant

INSATIABLE: Unable to be satisfied – insatiable greed

Synonyms. unappeasable, unquenchable, insatiate

INSCRUTABLE: Incapable of interpretation or understanding – the inscrutable smile of the Mona Lisa.

Synonyms: unfathomable, cryptic, enigmatic

INSIDIOUS: Working secretly or slyly – that insidious disease, cancer.

Synonyms: wily, crafty, furtive, treacherous, artful, guileful perfidious

INSTIGATE: To stir tip – instigated discontent among the soldiers.

Synonyms: foment, incite

INTEGRITY: Honesty, moral soundness – a man of proved integrity.

Synonyms: probity, uprightness, incorruptibility

INVEIGH (noun-. INVECTIVE): To speak angrily or bitterly-inveighed against economic discrimination.

Synonyms: rail, denounce, fulminate, vituperate

IRASCIBLE: Easily angered – Even petty things made Peter irascible.

Synonyms: choleric, petulant, testy, peevish, splenetic, touchy

Antonyms: placid, equable

IRE: Anger -aroused his ire.

Synonyms: resentment; (adj.) irate, incensed

IRKSOME: Tedious, monotonous – an irksome chore that no one liked.

ITINERANT: Traveling about; wandering – an itinerant salesman.

Synonym: nomadic

JARGON: Confused, unintelligible, meaningless talk; special vocabulary used only by members of a group or trade – Variety, a newspaper written in theatrical jargon.

Synonyms: gibberish, argot, cant

JAUNTY: Having an air of easy carelessness or liveliness – walked with a jaunty step.

Synonyms: sprightly, airy, gay, nonchalant, debonair

Antonyms: somber, staid

JEOPARDY: Danger – His life was in jeopardy.

Synonyms: hazard, peril

JETTISON: To throw overboard (as cargo); to throw off (as a burden or something in the way )- jettisoned their old candidate as a political liability.

JUDICIOUS: Wise; using or exhibiting good judgment – a well-chosen plan, termed judicious by all.

Synonyms:discreet, politic, discerning

KALEIDOSCOPIC: Constantly changing or varying in pattern or scenes – kaleidoscopic views of New York.

KEN: Range of sight or understanding – something beyond our ken.

Synonym: insight

LABYRINTH (adj.: LABYRINTHINE): A structure or intricate passage out of which it is difficult to find one’s way (also applied to spiritual and intellectual complexities) – confused by a labyrinth of intellectual discussions.


LACHRYMOSE: Causing or given to shedding tears – a lachrymose tragedy.

LACONIC: Saying much in few words – a laconic reply that spoke volumes.

Synonyms:concise, pithy, terse, succinct, taciturn, reticent

Antonyms:verbose, prolix, redundant, diffuse, tautological, turgid, garrulous, voluble

LARCENY: Theft – indicted for grand larceny.

LATENT: Hidden; present but not fully developed – latent talent that time will reveal.

Synonyms:dormant, quiescent, covert, potential

Antonyms:apparent, patent


(1) Profuse or generous – lavish in praise.

Synonyms: ample, superabundant

(2) Given to extravagance – a lavish spender.

Synonyms: prodigal, munificent, magnanimous.

Antonyms: parsimonious, niggardly, frugal, penurious

LETHAL: Deadly – a lethal weapon.

Synonyms: mortal, fatal

LONGEVITY: Prolonged duration of life – a country remarkable for the longevity of its inhabitants.

LOW: To bellow softly like cattle – the lowing herd in the meadow.

Synonym: moo

LUCID: Clear; transparent; easily understood – a lucid explanation of a difficult text.

Synonyms: pellucid, perspicuous, intelligible, limpid, luminous, translucent

Antonyms: abstruse, obscure

LUDICROUS: Ridiculous; producing laughter – a ludicrous remark that set them all to roaring.

Synonyms: mirthful, droll, comical, absurd

Antonyms: doleful, lugubrious, dismal

LUMINARY: An eminent person; a celestial body – the platform graced by a number of luminaries.

MACHIAVELLIAN: Sacrificing moral principles in order to attain power; politically cunning; crafty – a machiavellian design, wickedly contrived.

Synonym: unscrupulous

MALICIOUS (noun: MALICE): Bearing, or acting with, deliberate ill-will or spite – hurting with malicious intent.

Synonyms:rancorous, malignant, malevolent, virulent, vindictive

Antonym: benign

MASQUERADE (verb): To assume a deceptive appearance or character – a thief masquerading as an honest man.

Synonyms: dissemble, feign

(noun): A disguise; a group of people in disguise or fancy costumes – a masquerade so perfect no one could guess his identity.

MAUDLIN: Sentimental to the point of tears – turned maudlin at the mention of his lost dog.

Synonym : mawkish, lachrymose

MEANDER: To walk about (or talk) aimlessly; to wind about (as a stream) – meandered through the town, looking into shop windows.

Synonym: ramble

MEDIOCRE: Average in quality – a mediocre performance, unworthy of his talents.

MERCENARY: Acting solely from a consideration of reward or profit – actuated by a mercenarymotive.

Synonym: venal

MERETRICIOUS: Attracting in a false, cheap, or showy manner- a meretricious beauty that is too flashy to be real.

Synonyms:tawdry, specious

METICULOUS: Fussy about minute details – took meticulous pains with his composition.

Synonyms:fastidious, punctilious, overscrupulous, finical, methodical

Antonyms:desultory, perfunctory, slovenly

METTLE (adj.: METTLESOME: high-spirited ): Disposition; spirit; courage – His mettle was tried in battle.

Idiom: to be on one’s mettle (meaning, “ready to do one’s best”)

Synonyms:temperament, ardor

MICROCOSM: A little world, or a universe in miniature this village, a microcosm of the great outside world.

Antonym:macrocosm (world on a large scale)

MIMIC: To make fun of or copy by imitating – mimicked the comedian’s gestures.

MISANTHROPIC (noun: MISANTHROPE): Hating or distrusting mankind – condemned for his misanthropic views.

Antonyms: philanthropic, altruistic

MISNOMER: A name or term that describes wrongly – To call him a brave man is really a misnomer.

MONOLOGUE: A speech by one person – The actor gave his views in a dramatic monologue.


Antonyms:colloquy (adj. colloquial): conversation between two or more persons; dialogue: conversation between two persons

MOROSE: Gloomy; ill-humored – shunned because of his morose temper.

Synonyms: sulky, crabbed, sullen, splenetic, saturnine

Antonyms: blithe, genial

MOTLEY: Of various colors; of mixed ingredients – a motley costume; a motley crowd.

Synonyms: checkered (referring to a varied career), piebald, variegated, diverse, heterogeneous

Antonym: homogeneous

MOTTLED: Spotted or streaked with varied colors – a mottled pony.

Synonyms:blotched, dappled

MUNDANE: Of, or pertaining to, the world, as contrasted with the spirit – mundane affairs.

Synonyms:earthly, terrestrial, secular, temporal

MURKY: Dark; cloudy – a murky cavern.

Synonyms:dismal, tenebrous, fuliginous

Antonyms:resplendent, glowing, lustrous, luminous, fulgent, coruscating

MUTABLE: Given to frequent change in nature, mood, or form- mutable inmood as a spring wind.

Synonyms:vacillating, fickle, inconstant, fitful, mercurial, wavering, capricious

Antonyms:constant, steady

MYRIAD: Innumerable – the myriad stars in the heavens.

NAUTICAL: Pertaining to ships or navigation – a nautical career.

Synonyms: marine, naval, maritime

NETTLE: To irritate or provoke – nettled by his critics.

Synonyms: vex, pique, goad

NOCTURNAL: Pertaining to, or occurring in, the night – awakened by the sounds of a nocturnal prowler.

Antonym: diurnal

NOISOME: Foul-smelling; harmful-the swamp gave off a noisome odor.

Synonyms: malodorous, fetid, disgusting; noxious, deleterious

Antonym: salubrious

NONCHALANT: Unmoved or indifferent; casual – reacted to the news in a nonchalant manner.

Synonym: apathetic

Antonyms: enthusiastic, zealous

NOSTALGIA: Homesickness – felt nostalgia for the oldhomestead.

NOTORIOUS: Widely known (in a bad sense) – a notorious gambler.

NOVICE: A beginner – conducted himself in politics like a novice.

Synonyms:tyro, neophyte


OBDURATE: Hard-hearted; stubborn – an obdurate, unrepentant criminal.

Synonyms:adamant, unyielding, inflexible

Antonyms:submissive, docile, compliant

OBLIVIOUS (noun: OBLIVION): Forgetful; absent-minded – walking oblivious of his surroundings.

Synonyms:unmindful, heedless, abstracted

OBSESSION: A persistent feeling, idea, activity, etc., which dominates a person; the state of being exclusively preoccupied by a fixed idea – Now that he has learned bowling, it has become his obsession.

Synonyms:mania, infatuation (a foolish passion), monomania

OBSOLETE: No longer in use – an obsolete word, not even included by most dictionaries.

Synonyms:archaic, antiquated

OBTRUSIVE (verb: OBTRUDE): Thrusting oneself or itself into undue prominence – made himself obnoxiously obtrusive.

Synonyms:intrusive, aggressive

OBVIATE: To prevent, dispose of, or make unnecessary by appropriate actions – an act which obviated all objections.

Synonyms:preclude, forestall

OMNIPOTENT: All-powerful – an omnipotent despot.

ONUS: Burden; duty; obligation – bore the onus of his difficult office creditably.

OSTENSIBLE: Apparent; pretended – his ostensible, though not actual, purpose.

Synonyms:professed, plausible (that is, appearing true, reasonable, or fair), specious

OSTRACIZE: To banish; to exclude from public favor or privileges – a former premier ostracized by popular vote.

Synonym: outlaw

PANACEA: A remedy for all ills – seeking a panacea to cure our social troubles.

Synonym: nostrum

PANEGYRIC: A speech or writing of extravagant praise – delivered a panegyric at his friend’s testimonial dinner.

Synonyms:eulogy, adulation, tribute, laudation (adj. laudatory), encomium

Antonyms:censure, disparagement, derogation, castigation, depreciation

PARADOX: A self -contradictory statement; something ‘that appears to be absurd and yet may be true -“Life is too important a matter to he taken seriously.” – a paradox by Oscar Wilde.

Synonym: anomaly

PARAPHRASE: To restate the meaning of a passage in other words – paraphrased the poem in a few lines of prose.

PARODY (noun): A humorous imitation of an author’s style and mannerisms – wrote a parody on Kipling’s “Gunga Din.”

Synonym: burlesque

(verb): To write a parody – parodied the popular authors of the (lay to his audience’s amusement.

Synonym: Mimic

PECCADILLO: A petty fault-possesses one peccadillo among his many virtues.

Synonyms: frailty, foible, flaw, blemish

PECUNIARY: Pertaining to money – involved in pecuniary difficulties.

Synonyms; financial, fiscal, monetary

PEDANT (adj.: PEDANTIC): One whoproudly showsoffhislearning or whooverrates his knowledge – like a pedant glorying in his scholarly trifles.

PENSIVE: Sadly thoughtful – softly sang his pensive song.

Synonyms: reflective, meditative, contemplative, musing

PEREMPTORY: Positive in expressing an opinion – gave a peremptory judgment.

Synonyms:decisive, resolute, imperious, positive, dogmatic

Antonyms:indecisive, tentative

PERTINACIOUS: Clinging doggedly to an opinion or purpose – pertinacious in his efforts.

Synonyms:obdurate, tenacious, persistent, persevering, intractable, inflexible

PERUSE: To read carefully – perused the important letter.

PERVERSE: Willfully bent on doing the wrong thing – a perverse lad, always disobeying his parents.

Synonyms:headstrong, froward, refractory, wayward, fractious

PETRIFY: To paralyze with horror, fear, or surprise – petrified by the enemy bombardment.

Synonyms:stupefy, stun, bewilder, amaze

PLAGIARISM. Adopting and reproducing, without acknowledgment, the writings or ideas of another and passing them off as one’s own – denied the charge of deliberate plagiarism.

PLATITUDE: A dull and commonplace remark – bored people by his pompous phrases and platitudes.

Synonyms:bromide, truism, axiom

PLEBEIAN: Pertaining to the common people; hence, common or vulgar – plebeian in his tastes and outlook.

Antonyms:patrician, aristocratic

PLEBISCITE. A direct vote by the people – The decision to confederate was ratified by plebiscite.


(1) Gripping and moving the feelings powerfully – a poignant grief.

(2) Piercing, biting, pointed – a poignant cry; poignant wit.

PONDEROUS: Very heavy; clumsy; dull – a ponderous speech, extremely boring.

PRECARIOUS: Uncertain or risky – earning a precarious livelihood, providing no luxuries.


(1) Very steep – a precipitous cliff.

(2) Descending rapidly – a precipitous decline in popularity.

PRECOCIOUS: Remarkable for early mental development a precocious genius.


(1) Inclined to plunder or rob; – predatory bands roaming the countryside.

(2) Preying on, others – predatory animals prowling about.

Synonyms: predacious, looting, pillaging

PREDILECTION: Partiality or preference for; a favorable opinion arrived at beforehand – a predilection for theatricals.

Synonyms: prepossession, proclivity, predisposition, penchant

Antonyms: aversion, antipathy, repugnance

PRELUDE: An introduction, forerunner, or preliminary step – a short prelude to the play.

Synonyms: preface, prologue, preamble.

Antonym: epilogue

PREROGATIVE: A privilege or power attaching to a position – It is a woman’s prerogative to refuse to tell her age.

Synonym: license

PRESTIGE: Esteem or influence accorded for recognized achievements or reputation – As Senator he enjoyed great prestige.

Synonym: distinction

415, PRECOCIOUS: Remarkable for early mental development a precocious genius.


(1) Inclined to plunder or rob; – predatory bands roaming the countryside.

(2) Preying on, others – predatory animals prowling about.

Synonyms: predacious, looting, pillaging

PREDILECTION: Partiality or pr eference for; a favorable opinion arrived at beforehand – a predilection for theatricals.

Synonyms: prepossession, proclivity, predisposition, penchant

Antonyms: aversion, antipathy, repugnance

PRELUDE: An introduction, forerunner, or preliminary step – a short prelude to the play.

Synonyms: Preface, prologue. Preamble

Antonym: epilogue

PREROGATIVE: A privilege or power attaching to a position – It is a woman’s prerogative to refuse to tell her age.

Synonym: license

PRESTIGE: Esteem or influence accorded for recognized achievements or reputation – As Senator he enjoyed great prestige.

Synonym: distinction


(1) Something taken for granted – acted on a reasonable presumption.

(2) Going beyond proper bounds; impudent boldness – His question was downright presumption.

Synonyms: effrontery, forwardness, arrogance

PREVARICATE: To disguise or conceal the truth to lie – prevaricated in order to avoid detection.

Synonyms: quibble, equivocate; (adj.) mendacious

Antonyms: (noun) veracity, verity; (adj.) forthright

PROCRASTINATE: To postpone or put off to another time – missed his opportunity by procrastinating too long.

Synonyms: defer, delay

PROGNOSTICATE (noun: PROGNOSIS): To forecast – The Weather Bureau prognosticates daily.

Synonyms:presage, portend, augur, forebode

PROLETARIAT: The wage-earning class – a truckman, humble member of the proletariat.

PROMONTORY: A cliff – an imposing promontory along the coast.

Synonyms:headland, precipice

PROMULGATE: To publish or proclaim; to spread abroad The President promulgated a decree.


PROTUBERANT: Bulging or swelling out – a protuberant jaw.

Antonyms:receding, recessive

PROVISIONAL: Temporary; for the time being – a provisional plan until a permanent decision is reached.


PROXIMITY: Nearness-worked in close proximity to his home.

Synonyms :propinquity, vicinity


PSEUDONYM: A false name assumed by a writer – concealed his identity by a pseudonym.

Synonyms:alias, pen name, nom de plume

PUNITIVE: Inflicting, or concerned with, punishment – took punitive measures against deserters.

QUASH: To crush; to render void – quashed a rebellion; quashed an indictment.

Synonyms:suppress, extinguish, quell; annul

QUERULOUS: Given to fault-finding and complaining – Her querulous nature estranged many people.

Synonyms:fretful, whining, captious, carping, peevish, petulant

Antonym: affable

QUIXOTIC: Extravagantly romantic or idealistic; highly impractical – a quixotic scheme that can never materialize.

Synonyms:utopian, visionary, fantastic

RACONTEUR: A skilled storyteller – held spellbound by a superb raconteur.

RADICAL (noun): One who advocates extreme basic changes – The reform movement was led by a radical.

(adj.): Thorough, extreme – radical measures adopted to meet the emergency.

Antonym:(noun and adj.) conservative

RAMIFICATION: A branching; sub-division – studied the subject in all its ramifications.

RAZE: To tear down completely- razed the old building.



RECAPITULATE: To restate in a brief, concise form; to sum up – recapitulated the main ideas.

RECIPROCAL: Mutual; done in return for something received – held each other in reciprocalesteem.

RECUMBENT: Lying down; leaning back or down – resting in a recumbent position.


(1) Fragrant – a room redolent of roses.

Synonym: aromatic

(2) Reminiscent of – redolent of olden times.

REDOUBTABLE: Commanding fear or respect – cringing before a redoubtable enemy.


REFUTE: To prove incorrect or false-refuted his opponent’s argument.

Synonyms:rebut, confute

Antonyms: substantiate, confirm, corroborate

REITERATE: Repeat (several times) – reiterated his story once more.

REMUNERATIVE: Profitable – a remunerative job.

Synonyms: lucrative, gainful

RENEGADE: One who forsakes political or party principles or his religious faith – a renegade from his former allegiance.

Synonyms: turncoat, apostate, recreant, traitor

REPRISAL: Injury inflicted in turn for one received – took action in reprisal against his neighbor.

Synonym: retaliation

RESENTMENT: Feeling of displeasure or indignation resulting from mistreatment or abuse – showed resentment at what he considered an unwarranted insult.

Synonyms: umbrage, dudgeon, animosity

RESILIENT: Elastic; light-hearted; possessing power of recovery – a resilient Spirit, refusing to admit defeat.

Synonyms: flexible, pliable, supple, limber


(1) Temporary deferment or cessation of work or pain – a brief respite from labor.

Synonym: surcease

(2) A temporary delay in the execution of -a sentence – granted the doom man a temporary respite.

Synonym: reprieve

RETRIBUTION: The reward or punishment exacted for an injury, wickedness, or other action – suffered just retribution for his folly.

Synonyms: requital, nemesis


(1) To make good –retrieved a mistake.

(2) To recover –retrieved the suitcase left at the station.

(3) To restore – retrieved his lost fortunes.

REVERBERATE: To echo – a shot reverberating through the valley.

Synonym: resound

RUDIMENTARY: In an early stage of development – possessing only a rudimentary, knowledge of physics.

Synonym: incipient

RUE (adj.: RUEFUL): To be sorry for-He will rue the day he left home.

Synonyms: regret, repent

SACROSANCT: Very holy – a shrine. regarded as sacrosanct.

Synonyms: consecrated, inviolable, hallowed

SAGACIOUS (noun: SAGACITY): Wise; shrewd – proved to be sagacious in his judgment.

Synonyms: perspicacious, astute, sapient, discerning, sage

SALLOW: Sick – a sallow complexion.

Synonym: pallid

Antonyms: rubicund, ruddy, florid

SALLY: (verb): To rush forth suddenly – sallied out to meet the enemy.

(noun): A Witty remark – amused the audience with his sallies against his opponent.

Synonyms: quip, banter

SANCTIMONIOUS: Pretending to be religious – showed his hypocrisy in a sanctimonious display of piety.

SANGUINARY: Bloody – a sanguinary battle.

Synonym: gory

SANGUINE: Of a hopeful disposition; blood-red in color – a perennial optimist, sanguine in temperament.

Synonyms: buoyant, ardent

SARTORIAL: Pertaining to a tailor or clothes – a picture of sartorial perfection.


(1) An attentive or flattering follower – a prince surrounded by many satellites.

Synonyms: lackey, toady, disciple, adherent; adj., fawning, obsequious, partisan

(2) A country influenced or controlled by another – Freedom is conspicuously absent ,in the Soviet satellites.

(3) A body (natural or artificial) which revolves around a larger body, generally a planet – The moon is the only natural satellite of the earth, but in recent years it has been joined by many artificial satellites.

SCINTILLA: A trace; a particle – not a scintilla of convincing evidence.

Synonyms: iota; vestige

SCOURGE (verb): To punish severely; to afflict; to whip – a disease that scourged the country.

Synonyms: excoriate, flay

(noun). A whip or other means of punishment; a cause of affliction – The Black Plague was a dreadful scourge of the Middle Ages.

Synonym: tribulation

SCRUTINIZE: To examine carefully -scrutinized the contents of the letter.

SHIBBOLETH: A party slogan – a shibboleth designed to attract votes.

SIMPER (verb): To smile in a silly or affected way simpered as he greeted each guest.

(noun): An affected or silly smile – stood nervously, a simper on his face.

Synonym: (verb and noun) smirk

SINECURE: Employment entailing little or no responsibility or labor – His job was a sinecure.

SINISTER: Threatening or showing evil; dishonest – the sinisterlook of a gangster.

SLEAZY: Flimsy and cheap – sleazycloth which is used only in cheap garments.


SLOVENLY: Untidy-severely criticized the student’s slovenly appearance.

Synonyms: slipshod, slatternly, frowzy

SOPORIFIC: Tending to induce sleep – a poorly written novel, soporific in effect.

SORDID: Mean and base; filthy – Sordid motives breed selfish actions.

Synonyms: degraded, vile, ignoble

SOVEREIGN: Supreme m power and authority; independent of the control of any other government – possessing sovereign powers;a sovereign state.

Synonyms: autonomous, imperial, majestic, paramount

SPORADIC: Occurring singly, at irregular intervals; scattered – sporadic cases of illness.

SPURN: To refuse or reject with contempt – an offer that was spurned instantly.

Synonyms: repel, snub

STOIC: Indifferent, calm in bearing pain or pleasure; practising remarkable self-control over emotions – maintained a stoic attitude despite all his trials.

Synonyms: stolid, impassive

STRINGENT: Strict; compelling, constraining stringent regulations; stringent requirements.

Synonyms: exacting, rigid

Antonym: lax

STUPENDOUS: Amazing by, virtue of its immense size, force, or any quality in exceptional degree – The circus is a stupendous spectacle.

Synonymsastounding, prodigious, monstrous, marvelous, colossal, awful

SUCCULENT: juicy – a succulent steak.

Antonyms; desiccated, vapid

SULTRY: Close, hot, and moist – sultry tropical weather.


(1) Lying flat on the back – resting in a supine position.

Antonym: erect

(2) Inert, inactive, averse to taking action – a supine, ineffective administrator.

Synonyms: listless, torpid

TANGIBLE: Real; actual – tangible gains which may be seen. and counted.

Synonyms: material, veritable, perceptible, substantial

TANTAMOUNT: Equivalent – an act that is tantamount to treason.

TAUNT (verb). To reproach with contempt – taunted him with the charge of failure to act promptly.

Synonyms: mock, twit, gibe, sneer, deride

(noun): An insulting, jeering, or bitter remark – hurled taunts at his foes.

TEEMING: In abundance, fertile, highly productive – the teeming tropics, rank with vegetation.

Synonyms: swarming, fruitful, fecund, abounding

TEMERITY: Unwise or reckless boldness – leaped into battle with thoughtless temerity.

Synonyms: audacity, presumptuousness, effrontery, rashness;

(adj.) temerarious, foolhardy, venturesome

Antonyms: prudence, circumspection, wariness

TEMPORAL: Worldly, as opposed to spiritual; existing for a time only – a man preoccupied with temporal matters.

Synonyms: mundane, secular, civil

TEMPORIZE: To delay or refuse to commit oneself in order to gain time – temporized while his friends hurried to his aid.

Synonym: equivocate

TENET: A principle of belief held as true – a tenet of religion which be maintained loyally.

Synonyms: creed, doctrine, dogma

TENUOUS: Slender; not substantial; of slight importance – clung desperately to his tenuous hope.

TRANQUIL: Calm; peaceful – a tranquil summer night.

Synonyms: placid, serene

Antonyms: perturbed, ruffled, turbulent

TRANSGRESS: To break a law or command; to violate a moral principle; to overstep a moral bound or limit – transgressed the bounds of decency; transgressed the law.

TREMULOUS: Trembling – tremulous with fright.

Synonym: quivering

TRIVIAL: Of little – importance – a trivial offense.

Synonym: paltry

Antonyms: gross, momentous

TRUCULENT (noun: TRUCULENCE): Cruel, fierce; harsh; threatening or intimidating savagely – a dispute marked by a truculent attitude on both sides.


(1) Swollen, inflated – turgid rivers overflowing their banks.

Synonyms: bloated, distended

(2) Using big or high-sounding words – a turgid prose style.

Synonyms: pompous, bombastic, prolix

UBIQUITOUS: Existing everywhere – The common cold is a ubiquitous complaint.

Synonyms: omnipresent, universal

UNTENABLE: Incapable of being defended or held – withdrew the argument as untenable.

UTILITARIAN (adj.): Materially or practically useful – beautiful, but not utilitarian.

VANQUISH: To subdue or conquer -an army vanquished with heavy losses.

VAUNT: To boast – proudly vaunted his strength.

Synonyms: brag (noun: braggadocio, braggart), proclaim

VENEER: A superficial appearance or show designed to impress one with superiority – pierced beneath his thin veneer of elegance.

Synonym: gloss

VENERABLE: Deserving respect or reverence because of age – a venerable leader.

VERNAL: Pertaining to spring-an array of vernal flowers.

Antonym: hibernal (wintry)

VERSATILE: Able to do many things skillfully – versatile in all the arts.

VICARIOUS: Taking the place of another; felt, received, or done in place of another – took vicarious pleasure in his brother’s victory.

VICISSITUDE: A change from one condition to another, often unexpected – suffered many vicissitudes of fortune.

VIRAGO: A scolding or ill-tempered woman – My neighbor’s wife is a virago.

Synonyms: shrew, termagant, vixen

VITUPERATE (noun: VITUPERATION; adj.: VITUPERATIVE): To scold or blame loudly, find fault with in abusive language – an angry man, vituperating the world.

Synonyms: berate, revile

WAIVE: To give up (privileges, etc.); to do without – waived his rights to the property.

Synonyms: relinquish, forgo, forsake

WHIM (adj.: WHIMSICAL): A sudden notion or passing fancy -frequently acted on the whim of the moment.

Synonyms: caprice, vagary, crotchet

WRITHE: To twist about (usually with pain) – writhed in agony on the floor.

Synonyms: contort, squirm

ZEALOUS (noun: ZEALOT: fanatic): Full of enthusiasm or eagerness -a zealous student, first in his class.

Antonym: perfunctory

ZENITH: The highest point – the zenith of his career.

Synonyms: acme, apex, culmination, summit

Antonym: nadir

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