Хэрэв та англи хэлээр ярьдаг орнууд, мөн англи хэлээр хичээлээ заадаг, нэр хүндтэй их сургуулиудад суралцахыг хүсч байвал, танд англи хэлний өндөр чадвар шаардлагатай. Тэгвэл таны англи хэлний чадварыг шалгаж, түвшин тогтоодог хамгийн түгээмэл шалгалт нь АНУ дахь ETS (Educational Testing Service) байгууллагаас дэлхий даяар зохион байгуулдаг TOEFL (The Test of English as a Foreign Language) юм.
TOEFL-ийн шалгалт нь дотроо iBT (Internet-Based TOEFL) , PBT (Paper-Based TOEFL) гэсэн хоёр төрөлтэй бөгөөд монгол хэлээр хөрвүүлбэл iBT нь интернэтэд суурилсан TOEFL, PBT нь цаас суурьтай (шалгалт өгөхдөө цаасан дээр гараар нөхөж бичдэг) TOEFL юм.
Хэрэв та англи хэлээр ярьдаг орны их сургууль, эсвэл англиар хичээл заадаг коллеж, их сургуульд суралцахыг хүсч байвал, iBT-ийг нь өгөх хэрэгтэй. Учир нь, коллеж, их сургуулиуд гол төлөв iBT-ийн оноо шаарддаг. iBT нь тус бүр 0-30 оноо бүхий унших, сонсох, ярих, бичих чадвар гэсэн дөрвөн хэсгээс бүрдэх ба дээд оноо нь 120 юм.
Харин PBT-ийг ямар нэг байгууллагаас хэрэгжүүлж буй үйл ажиллагаа (жишээ нь, байгууллагын тэтгэлэгт хөтөлбөр)-т зориулж авдаг байна. Мөн, интернэтэд суурилсан TOEFL өгөх боломжгүй зарим улсын иргэд iBT-ийн оронд PBT өгч болно (Монгол Улс үүнд хамаардаггүй). PBT нь сонсох чадвар, дүрэм, унших чадвар бүхий гурван хэсэгтэй ба дээд оноо нь 677 юм.
Хэдийгээр iBT, PBT нь агуулгын хувьд нэлээд ялгаатай боловч унших хэсгүүд нь ихээхэн төстэй гэж хэлж болно. Иймд та iBT өгөх гэж байгаа бол PBT-ийн унших хэсгийг ашиглан өөрийгөө бэлдэх бүрэн боломжтой.
iBT, PBT-ийн унших чадварын хэсэгт хэрэгтэй нэгэн чухал мэдлэг нь англи хэлний үгсийн сан юм. iBT, PBT-ийн унших чадвар шалгадаг текстүүд танаас баялаг үгийн сан шаарддаг. Иймд та олон тооны үг цээжлэх хэрэгтэй болно. Ингээд танд тус болох үүднээс TOEFL-ийн шалгалтанд хэрэглэгддэг хамгийн түгээмэл 500 үгийг толилуулж байна.
TOEFL-Д ХЭРЭГЛЭГДДЭГ ХАМГИЙН ТҮГЭЭМЭЛ 500 ҮГ
ABANDON: To give up completely – abandoned the sinking ship.
Synonyms: relinquish, forgo, forsake
ABASH: To lose self-confidence; to confuse, put to shame – abashed before the assembled dignitaries.
Synonyms: fluster, disconcert, discomfit, discompose
Antonym: (adj.) self-possessed
ABDICATE: To give up claim to – abdicated the throne
Synonyms: renounce, abandon, relinquish
ABET: To encourage -or support – treacherously abetted the enemy.
Synonyms: spur, incite
ABRIDGE: To shorten – abridged his lengthy speech.
Synonyms: curtail, diminish, retrench
Anthonyms: protract, elongate, amplify
ABROGATE: To abolish or render void – a treaty abrogated by mutual consent.
Synonyms: annul, nullify, rescind, void
ABSTEMIOUS: Moderate in the use of food or drink – abstemiousin his habits.
ACADEMIC: Pertaining to school; theoretical academic interests; an academic discussion, with no practical implications.
ACCEDE: To agree to -accede to a request.
ACCELERATE: – To quicken, speed tip – took an accelerated course in order to graduate early.
Synonym: expedite (adj. expeditious)
ACCOLADE: An award or salute – a tremendous accolade for a returning hero.
Synonyms: tribute, ovation
ACCORD: Agreement or harmony – in full accord with his view.
Synonyms: concord, concurrence
ACRIMONIOUS: Sharp or harsh in language or temper – stung by the acrimonious remark.
Synonyms:caustic, acerb, pungent, tart, mordant, acrid; (noun) asperity
ACUMEN: Keenness of mind or insight – showing exceptional business acumen.
Synonyms:perspicacity, discernment, perception
ADMONISH (noun: ADMONITION): To warn or find fault gently – admonishing the unruly child.
Synonyms:chide, caution, reprimand, reprehend, reproach
ADVERSARY: (adj.: ADVERSE): An opponent – his adversary in a bitter debate.
Antonyms:cohort, confederate, ally, accomplice
ADVERSITY: Misfortune – calm in the face of adversity.
Synonyms:affliction, mischance, reverses
AESTHETIC: Pertaining to the beautiful – interested in aesthetic values rather than in purely practical affairs.
AFFABLE: Sociable, courteous, and agreeable in manner a much admired, affable gentleman.
Synonyms: civil, complaisant, benign, gracious, genial, urbane, cordial
Antonyms:curt, brusque, rude, boorish, surly
AFFLUENT: Prosperous, flourishing; copious – a large bequest from an affluent grandfather.
AGGRESSIVE (noun: AGGRESSION. an unprovoked attack): self-assertive; attacking, offensive – annoyed people by his aggressive attitude;
Synonyms:bumptious, officious, obtrusive
Antonyms:meek, humble, retiring, diffident
ALACRITY: Eagerness; cheerful promptness – responded to the flattering offer with alacrity.
Synonyms:celerity, briskness, energy, animation
Antonyms:apathy, nonchalance, sluggishness, lethargy, phlegmatism
ALIENATE: To estrange – altenated by his gruff manner.
ALLAY: To calm; to lessen in severity – at ease now that his fears have been allayed.
Synonyms:appease, alleviate, pacify, assuage, abate, mitigate, propitiate, mollify, placate
ALLUDE (noun: ALLUSION): To refer to indirectly – alluded quite subtly to his friend’s misfortune.
Synonyms:insinuate, intimate, imply
ALLURE: To tempt by flattery or an attractive offer – allured by the prospect of a new job.
Synonyms:lure, decoy, inveigle, entice, seduce, wheedle, beguile, cajole
AMBIGUOUS: Uncertain, vague, capable of being inter- in more than one way – puzzled by the ambiguous statement.
Synonyms:hazy, obscure, equivocal, dubious, nebulous
AMENABLE: Obedient; willing to submit – amenable to the suggestion.
Synonyms:tractable, docile, responsive
Antonyms:intractable, refractory, recalcitrant
AMIABLE: Good-natured; friendly – attracted friends by his amiable disposition.
ANACHRONISM: A thing placed or occurring out of its normal time – A machine gun at the Battle of Yorktown would be an anachronism.
ANALOGY (adj.: ANALOGOUS): A relation between two things shown in the resemblance not of the things themselves but of their characteristics- He indicated points of analogy between the two situations.
Antonym: anomaly (a deviation from the general rule)
ANARCHY: State of confusion or lawlessness – a country brought to utter anarchy by civil war.
Synonyms: chaos, pandemonium
ANIMUS: A feeling of hatred-felt no animus, even against the enemy.
Synonyms: enmity, rancor, malevolence, animosity
ANNALS: Historical records – in the annals of literature.
ANONYMOUS: Of unknown authorship-an anonymous publication.
ANTHOLOGY: A collection of choice literary works – an anthology of modern poetry.
ANTITHESIS (adj.: ANTITHETICAL): Contrast; the direct opposite – His selfish attitude seemed to me the antithesis o patriotism.
APATHY (adj.: APATHETIC): Lack of feeling, emotion, or interest – attributed his failure to apathy, rather than lack of ability.
Synonyms: torpor, lethargy, sluggishness, listlessness, languor, lassitude, dispassion; (verb) languish
APPREHENSIVE (verb: APPREHEND): Fearful – Being unprepared, John is apprehensive of the examination.
APPRISE: To inform -apprisedhis lieutenants of the new situation.
APPROBATION: Approval; praise -a plan that met with hearty approbation.
APT (noun: APTITUDE, APTNESS):
(1) Likely; inclined or disposed – apt to succeed. Synonym: prone
(2) Fit, suitable – an apt remark.
Synonyms: appropriate, felicitous
(3) Skillful, expert – apt at woodcarving.
Synonyms: deft, dextrous, adept. Antonym: inept
ARBITER: A person who has authority to decide matters in dispute – a fair decision rendered by the arbiter.
Synonyms: mediator, arbitrator
ARCHETYPE: An original pattern – copies reproduced from the archetype.
Antonyms: Stereotype, facsimile, replica
ARID: Dry; barren – the arid desert land.
Synonyms. jejune, parched
Antonyms: arable, fertile
ARISTOCRACY: Government by the best people; a privileged class -special privileges enjoyed by the aristocracy.
ARMISTICE: A temporary suspension of hostilities. The armistice halted the war.
ARTFUL: Sly; crafty – attained his mean objective by artful measures.
Synonyms: cunning, wily, adroit, ingenious, guileful
Antonyms: guileless, ingenuous, artless
ARTICULATE (verb): To speak clearly or distinctly – articulated slowly so that he could not be misunderstood.
(adj.): Capable of speech; distinct, clear – an articulate man, always ready to give his views.
ASCETIC: Rigorously self-denying – pursued the ascetic life of a monk.
Synonyms: austere, abstinent
Antonyms: wanton, self-indulgent
ASKANCE: With distrust – looked askance at the forged signature.
ASSEVERATE: To declare positively; to confirm – asseverated his views with conviction.
Synonyms:assert, avouch, aver, avow, allege
Antonyms:gainsay, controvert, recant, rescind, abjure, disavow
ASSIDUOUS: Industrious – an assiduous worker, toiling long hours.
Synonyms:sedulous, attentive, diligent, indefatigable
ASYLUM: A place offering shelter and retreat -found asylum from persecution.
ATHEIST: One who denies that God exists – The atheist declared, “There is no God.”
Synonyms:infidel, agnostic, skeptic
ATTRIBUTE (verb): Assign –attributed his success to bard work.
(noun): An inherent quality -Generosity was his outstanding attribute.
AUGMENT: To increase or enlarge – an army augmented by numerous enlistments.
Synonyms: enhance, amplify – Antonyms: abate, curtail
AUSPICIOUS: Indicating a happy outcome – The prospect for this project appears auspicious.
AUTHENTIC: Genuine -proved to be an authentic document.
Synonyms:veritable, bona fide
Antonyms;apocryphal, counterfeit, spurious, bogus
AUTOCRATIC: Despotic – feared by the masses as an autocratic ruler.
AVARICE: Excessive greed – a fortune accumulated by avarice and miserliness.
Synonyms:covetousness, cupidity, avidity
AWRY: Unsymmetrical; not straight – the picture, hanging awry on the wall.
BANAL: Lacking in freshness, originality, or vigor-bored by his banal remarks.
Synonyms:commonplace, hackneyed, prosaic, trite, stereotyped, vapid
Antonyms:racy, original, vivid
BANEFUL (noun: BANE: poison; source of harm): Destructive, poisonous – a baneful effect, causing serious injury.
Synonyms: deleterious, pernicious, virulent, noxious, toxic
BANTER: Good-natured teasing or ridicule-The two wits I exchanged banter, to the amusement of the audience.
BATON: A stick or staff – The conductor wielded his baton gracefully.
BELIE: To give a false idea of – His gracious manner belled his. evil purpose.
BELLICOSE; Inclined to quarrel; warlike – His bellicose attitude often got John into fights.
Synonyms: pugnacious, contentious, disputatious
Antonyms: pacific, conciliatory
BELLIGERENT: Engaged in war – two belligerent nations warring fiercely.
BENEVOLENT: Kindly; charitable – like a benevolent monarch, bestowing many favors.
Synonyms: benign, benignant, gracious, magnanimous
Antonyms: malevolent, malignant
BEREAVE: To deprive or leave desolate by loss – a widow just bereaved of her husband.
BESMIRCH: To soil or dirty – besmirched his opponent’s good name with vile epithets.
Synonyms: stilly, defile, smirch, bespatter
BIASED: Prejudiced – misled by a biased point of view.
Synonyms:bigoted, arbitrary, partial, partisan
BIBLIOPHILE: A lover of books – The bibliophile fingeredthe old book fondly.
BIZARRE: Queer; unusual in appearance- bizarre clothes, outlandish in the extreme.
Synonyms:odd, fantastic, grotesque, eccentric
BLAND: Gentle; polite; agreeable – a bland diet, without irritating foods.
Synonyms: mild, suave (affable or persuasive in manner), soothing, non-irritating
Antonyms: piquant, tart, racy, caustic, acrid, pungent
BLANDISHMENT: A flattering speech or act – attracted people by his blandishments.
BLEMISH (verb): To scar or spoil – Bad associates blemished his character
(noun): A disfigurement, defect – a character without a blemish.
BLIGHT: To ruin or decay – the rotting wheat-, blighted by incessant rain.
BLITHE: Gay and light-hearted in spirit or mood – spread cheer with her blithe spirit.
Synonyms: jocund, merry, joyous
Antonyms: dejected, forlorn, abject
BOG: A swamp – sank into the spongy bog.
Synonyms: morass, fen, quagmire, mire
BOMBASTIC (noun: BOMBAST): High-sounding; pretentious in language – a bombastic speech, inflated with meaningless high-flown words.
Synonyms: ranting, pompous, fustian
BOORISH: Unrefined in speech or manners – exhibited the boorish manners of a backwoodsman.
Synonyms:churlish, uncouth. uncultured, crass
BUCOLIC: Pertaining to the country – a bucolic poem de- the joys of the shepherd.
Synonyms:pastoral, rustic, rural
BUFFOON: A clown – acting like a buffoon, full of ludicrous tricks.
- An embankment used as a fortification – a lofty bulwark for defense.
- A person, idea, or object serving as a protection – acted as a bulwark in the fight against crime.
BUMPTIOUS: Obnoxiously conceited or self-assertive – a bumptious monitor, puffed up with his own importance,
Synonyms: aggressive, arrogant, contumelious, overbearing
CABAL: A small group of persons engaged in plotting – a cabal of prominent persons united to overthrow the government.
Synonyms: junto, faction
CACOPHONOUS: Unharmonious sounding – a cacophonous blare of trumpets, noisy and discordant.
Synonyms: dissonant, discordant, blatant, strident, raucous Antonyms: mellifluous, euphonious, dulcet
CADAVEROUS: Corpselike; hence, haggard, pale -His face appeared cadaverous from long imprisonment.
Synonyms: ghastly, gaunt, pallid (noun: pallor), wan, ashen
Antonyms: rubicund, florid
CALLOUS: Unfeeling or insensitive – made callous by long suffering.
Synonyms: insensible, obdurate
CALUMNIATE: To accuse falsely or maliciously in order to injure another’s reputation; slander – calumniated his political opponent by spreading false rumors.
Synonyms: asperse, vilify, defame, scandalize
CANDID (noun: CANDOR): Frank, outspoken; impartial a candid reply that could hardly be more forthright.
Synonyms: artless, ingenuous, unbiased
Antonyms: guileful, evasive
CANTANKEROUS: Ill-natured; quarrelsome – showed a cantankerous and sullen disposition.
Synonyms:petulant, peevish, contentious, pugnacious, testy, choleric, fretful
Antonyms:amiable, affable, equable
CAPRICIOUS: Inclined, through some whim or fancy change the mind, purpose, or actions suddenly – a capricious person, undependable in mood or temper.
Synonyms:fickle, fitful, changeable, erratic, inconstant, crotchety, whimsical, mercurial
Antonyms:steadfast, constant, even-tempered
CAPTIOUS: Quick to find fault about trifles- a captious critic pouncing on slight laws.
Synonyms:hypercritical, carping, carviling, censorious
CARICATURE: A picture or other description of a person which exaggerates ludicrously one or more of his distinctive features – not a realistic portrait but a malicious caricature.
CASTIGATE: To punish or criticize severely – castigated for using improper language.
Synonyms:reprove, upbraid, reprehend, censure, reprimand, chasten
Antonyms:commend, eulogize, laud
CELESTIAL: Pertaining to the sky; heavenly-a celestial pageant of bright stars.
Synonyms:ethereal; (noun) firmament
CHAUVINIST. An extreme patriot-a chauvinist with most pride in his country.
CHICANERY: Trickery, deception,- practised chicanery all his shady dealings.
Synonyms:duplicity, craft, stratagem, wile, subterfuge
CHRONIC: Continuing a long time; habitual-a. chronic complaint, persisting for years.
Synonyms:persistent, unremitting, inveterate, incessant, constant
Antonyms:intermittent, sporadic, infrequent
CIRCUMSPECT: Cautious – looked about him circumspectly.
Synonyms:prudent, vigilant, discreet, wary
Antonyms:rash, indiscreet, reckless, precipitate, foothardy, temerarious, headstrong
CIRCUMVENT: To gain an advantage by the use of trick to evade by the use of deception; to go around – circumvented thelaw by evasive practices.
Synonyms:thwart, balk, outwit, delude
- Of or having to do with citizens or the state – We I civil duties as well as civil liberties.
- Polite, courteous – answered in a civil fashion.
Synonyms: respectful, gracious
CLAMOROUS: Loud and noisy – a clamorous outburst the crowd outside.
Synonyms: vociferous, obstreperous, blatant, raucous, strident
Antonyms: muted, quiet
CLANDESTINE: Secret; stealthy – a clandestine meeting known only to a few.
Synonyms: furtive, covert, surreptitious
Antonyms: overt, manifest, above-board
CLEMENT: Merciful; gentle – a clement judge who tempered justice with leniency.
Synonyms: compassionate, forbearing
Antonyms: relentless, ruthless
COALITION (verb: COALESCE): Alliance; merging of various units into one unit – three parties forming a coalition to rule the country.
Synonyms: amalgamation, consolidation, fusion
COERCION: Compelling a person by physical force or other means to do something against his will – rendered his services without the slightest coercion.
Synonyms: constraint, restraint, impelling
COGENT: Having the force to compel, usually by appealing to reason – persuaded by cogentarguments.
COLLUSION: Working together secretly for an evil purpose – acted in collusion to overthrow the government.
Synonyms: collaboration, conspiracy, conniving, machination
COMMODIOUS: Roomy – a commodious apartment.
Synonyms: spacious, capacious, ample
COMPATIBLE: Harmonious; able, to get along together parted company because they were not compatible.
Synonyms: congruous, consistent
Antonyms: incongruous, discordant, incompatible
COMPENDIUM (adj.: COMPENDIOUS): A brief summary of the main ideas of a larger work – a compendium of chemistry in a slim volume.
Synonyms: synopsis, digest, precis, abstract, epitome
COMPENSATION: Payment for services – just compensation for his labor.
Synonyms: stipend, remuneration, recompense, emolument
COMPLACENT: Self-satisfied – looked on his own performance with a complacent smile.
COMPUNCTION: Regret for wrongdoing – displayed slight compunction for his misdeed.
Synonyms: contrition, penitence, atonement, remorse, qualm
CONCEDE: To yield; to admit as true; to grant – conceded victory to a superior force.
Synonyms: acquiesce, capitulate
CONDIGN: Well-deserved (applied chiefly to punishment) – received condign punishment for his crime.
CONDOLE (noun: CONDOLENCE): To express sympathy with another in sorrow, pain, or misfortune – condoled with each other in their grief.
Synonyms: commiserate, show compassion, solace
CONDONE: To forgive or overlook (an offense) – condoned the deed, in view of the offender’s age.
Synonyms: extenuate, palliate, mitigate, gloss
CONFEDERATE (noun): A person allied with others for a special purpose (frequently a bad one) – joined his confederate in secret enterprise.
Synonyms: collaborator, accomplice
(adj.): United or allied in a conspiracy – two confederate groups hurrying to their rendezvous.
(1) Possessing similar interests and tastes; able to get on well with others – congenial people with similar backgrounds.
(2) Agreeable – congenial to his taste.
CONJECTURE: To guess – Without facts, we can only conjecture about his guilt.
Synonyms: surmise, presume
(1) To set apart as sacred – consecrate the battlefield with a monument to the dead heroes. Synonyms: hallow, sanctify Antonym: desecrate
(2) To devote or dedicate to some aim – consecrated his life to teaching.
CONSENSUS. General agreement – The consensus of the committee was that no action should be taken.
CONSTERNATION: Amazement; lack of courage caused by fearful prospect – The threat struck deep consternation into John.
Synonyms: dismay, bewilderment
CONSTRUE (noun: CONSTRUCTION): To interpret, explain the sense of, or analyze – construedthe statement to his own advantage.
CONSUMMATE (adj.): Perfect or highly accomplished – achieved with consummate skill.
Antonyms:botched. bungled, inept
(verb): To complete, bring to perfection – consummated the deal without delay.
CONTEMPTUOUS: Expressive of contempt (an emotion involving anger and disgust) – cast a contemptuous look at his subordinate.
Synonyms: supercilious, scornful, disdainful, contumelious
CONVIVIAL: Festive; gay – a convivial party.
Synonyms: jovial, jocund, mirthful
Antonyms: lugubrious, dolorous, mirthless
COPIOUS: Plentiful – shed copious tears at the bad news.
Synonyms. profuse, bountiful, abundant
Antonyms: meager, scant
CORPULENT: Fat – corpulent due to excessive eating.
Synonyms: obese, portly
Antonyms: gaunt, lank, emaciated, peaked
COSMOPOLITAN (noun): One who is at home in all countries – A cosmopolitan can feel at ease anywhere in the world.
(adj.): Free from local prejudices – a world-wide traveler, cosmopolitan in tastes and attitudes.
Antonyms: parochial, provincial
COTERIE: A group of people joined by common interests a coterie of select friend.
COUNTENANCE (noun): A face – His countenance expressed his complete disgust.
(verb): To approve – refused to countenance disrespectful conduct.
CRASS: Coarse and stupid – displayed crass ignorance.
CRAVEN (noun): Coward – the deed of a craven, motivated by fear.
(adj.): Cowardly – a craven act which shocked the world.
Synonyms: pusillanimous, dastardly.
Antonyms: stalwart, intrepid, valiant, stout-hearted
CREDENCE: Trust or belief – gave little credence to the rumor.
CREDIBLE: Worthy of belief – a credible story, true to life.
CREDITABLE: Deserving or reflecting Credit or honor – applauded for his creditable performance.
Synonyms: praiseworthy, meritorious, commendable
Antonyms: discreditable, infamous, opprobrious, ignominious
CREDULOUS: Inclined to believe anything; easily imposed upon – a credulous fool whom anyone can dupe.
Antonyms: incredulous, skeptical
CRINGE: To shrink in fear – cringing before superior force.
Synonyms, cower, flinch, fawn, truckle, wince
CRUCIAL: Decisive or critical; difficult – the crucial event that decided the outcome.
CRYPTIC: Containing hidden meaning – a cryptic message, difficult to decipher.
Synonyms: occult, enigmatic
Antonyms: palpable, manifest
CULPABLE: Deserving blame or censure – removed from office for culpable negligence.
Synonyms: censurable, reprehensible
CUMBROUS: Burdensome and clumsy – a cumbrous knapsack, impeding his march.
Synonyms: cumbersome, unwieldy, bulk
CURB: To control, check, or restrain – forcibly curbed the people’s protest.
Synonyms: repress, subdue
CURSORY: Hurried; hence, superficial- Time permitted only a cursory examination.
Antonyms: painstaking, meticulous
CURT: Rudely abrupt -offended by the curt response.
Synonyms: blunt, brusque, bluff
Antonyms: affable, civil
CYNICAL: Sneeringly distrustful of the good motives or conduct of others – belittled the hero with a cynical remark.
Synonyms: sarcastic, surly
DEARTH: Scarcity – a dearth of news, brought about by censorship.
Antonyms: plethora, abundance
DEFERENCE: Submitting to the wishes or judgment of another – yielded out of deference to the old man.
Synonyms: respect, complaisance, veneration
DEITY: A god -The sun was a deity to ancient peoples.
DELECTABLE: Very pleasing – a delectable meal, tastefully prepared.
DELETE: To erase or cancel, take out or remove – deletedan offensive phrase.
Synonyms: expunge, censor, efface, eradicate
DELINEATE: To sketch or portray – striking features, delineated by a master artist.
DELINQUENT (noun): An offender – found to be a delinquent by the court.
(adj.): Failing to fulfill an obligation – too many people who are delinquent in meeting their civic duties.
DELUGE: A great flood; downpour – a spring deluge which caused the river to overflow.
DEMAGOGUE: A leader who tries to stir the passions of people for his own purposes – the mob roused by an unprincipled demagogue.
DEMEANOR: Behavior; bearing – carrying himself with a proud demeanor.
Synonyms: deportment, mien
DEMURE: Affectedly or falsely modest or prim; serious demure as a Victorian maiden.
Synonyms: sedate, staid, decorous, prudish, coy
Antonyms: immodest, frivolous
DENOUNCE (noun: DENUNCIATION): To speak against – denounced by the press as a traitor.
Synonyms: stigmatize, censure, reprehend, castigate
Antonyms: laud, eulogize
DEPLETE: To empty or to use up – depleted the public treasury by vast building programs.
Synonyms: exhaust, drain
Antonyms: replenish; (adj.) replete
DEPLORE: To express sorrow or grief over – a lamentable situation deplored by all parties.
Synonyms: lament, decry, grieve
DEPRAVED: Of low morals; corrupt – a depraved mind, devising evil.
Synonyms: debased, wicked, vicious, perverted
DEPRECATE: To plead or argue against a certain course of action – deprecated theproposal severely.
Synonyms: remonstrate, protest, decry, expostulate
DEPRECIATE: To belittle or speak slightingly of – depreciated John’s acting ability.
Synonyms: disparage, derogate (adj. derogatory)
Antonyms: enhance, magnify, extol, laud, eulogize
DEVASTATION: Widespread ruin – the city left in utter devastation by war.
Synonyms: destruction, desolation
(1) Winding; indirect – took a devious, rather than the direct way home.
(2) Straying from the right course – used devious means to attain his wicked ends.
Synonyms: crooked, erring
DEVOID: Lacking in; not possessing – a speech devoid ofeven a trace of ill-will.
Antonyms: abounding, prevalent
DEVOUT: Devoted to religious observances – devout in his regularity of attendance at worship.
Synonyms: pious, religious
DICTUM: Art authoritative statement; a saying-an imperial dictum demanding instant compliance.
DIDACTIC: Designed to teach, imparting a lesson – a poem with a didactic purpose.
DIFFIDENT: Lacking in self-confidence- too diffident to lead a group.
Synonyms: shy, timid, reserved, reticent, retiring
DILEMMA: A situation calling for a choice between two equally difficult alternatives; hence, a difficult or perplexing situation – faced with a dilemma defying solution.
Synonyms:predicament, quandary, plight
DILETTANTE: One who dabbles in the fine arts for amusement only and without concentrated study – a doctor by profession, a dilettante in art.
DISCONCERT: To confuse; to embarrass – disconcerted by his suspicious stare.
Synonyms:perturb, discomfit, discompose, abash, disquiet, fluster
DISCONSOLATE: Depressed; without hope or possibility of consolation – made disconsolate by abject poverty.
DISCOURSE: To converse or talk; to discuss – discoursed at length on the rise of political parties.
DISCRETE: Separate – two discrete issues, totally unrelated.
DISCURSIVE: Rambling from one subject to another – a discursive letter, covering many topics.
DISPARITY (adj.: DISPARATE): Inequality; difference in image, quantity, character, or rank – great disparity between promise and performance.
DISPASSIONATE: Free from feeling or partiality – coldly dispassionate as the chairman of the meeting
DISPATCH (verb): To do speedily; to send off – dispatched with remarkable promptness.
(noun): A speedy performance; the sending off of something – done with all possible dispatch.
Synonyms: celerity, alacrity
DISPEL: To drive away; to scatter – dispelled a doubt that had lingered.
Synonyms:dissipate, disperse, diffuse
DISSENT (noun: DISSENSION): To disagree; to differ in opinion – He dissented violently, rejecting compromise.
DISSOLUTE: Living loosely; unrestrained in conduct or morals – his life wasted by dissoluteconduct.
Synonyms:debauched, dissipated, profligate
DISTRAUGHT: Mentally distressed; distracted – distraught by trials and tribulations.
DIVERSE: (verb: DIVERSIFY; noun: DIVISIBILITY): Varied; different – two diverse characters; one candid, the other insincere.
DIVERTING: Entertaining – a diverting one of the most amusing I’ve ever seen.
DIVULGE: To make public or reveal – refused to divulge his source of information.
Synonyms: disclose, impart
DOGMATIC: Positive in expressing an opinion; asserting an opinion as though it were an undisputed fact – spoken dogmatically, as if the speaker considered himself infallible.
Synonyms: overbearing, opinionated, peremptory, dictatorial
DOLOROUS: Sorrowful; mournful – a dolorous song full of sorrow for past joys.
Synonyms: doleful, lugubrious, grievous
Antonyms: jocund, blithe, mirthful
DYNAMIC: Forceful – possessed dynamic energy, tireless and powerful.
Antonyms: static, inert, dormant, torpid, sluggish, quiescent
ECCLESIASTIC (adj.): Pertaining to the clergy or the church – recognized as an authority in ecclesiastic matters. Antonyms: secular, lay
(noun): A clergyman – an ecclesiastic of liberal views.
EDICT: A public command or proclamation issued by an authority – proclaimed by royal edict.
EDIFY: To instruct or uplift, particularly in morals or religion – a story that edifiesthe reader, as well as entertains him
EFFETE: No longer productive; hence, lacking in or, worn out – powerful in ancient days, now an effete civilization.
EGOTISTIC: Conceited – an egotisticperson, flourishing on praise.
EGREGIOUS: Outstandingly bad an egregiousmistake with serious implications.
EJACULATE: To exclaim or utter suddenly – ejaculateda cry of horror.
ELICIT: To draw out – elicitedno response from the audience.
Synonyms:evoke, extract, extort
ELUCIDATE: To make clear; to explain – elucidatedhis theory so that even a schoolboy could understand it.
EMISSARY: A person sent on an errand or mission – delegated his emissary to conclude a pact.
ENGENDER: To cause, produce, or stir up-an act that engenderedgood will.
ENNUI: Boredom; weariness of mind-fell asleep at the meeting from sheer ennui.
ENSUE: To follow or result-Silence ensuedwhen the leader arose to speak.
ENTREAT: To beg earnestly – entreatedthe judge to show mercy.
Synonyms:solicit, supplicate, beseech, implore, importune;
(adj.) importunate, mendicant, suppliant
EPHEMERAL: Very short-lived – an ephemeraljoy, lasting but a day.
Synonyms:fleeting, transitory, transient, evanescent
EPICUREAN (noun):A person devoted to luxurious living and pleasure – an epicurean, seeking to enjoy every meal.
(adj.): Pleasure-loving – His entire existence demonstrated his epicureantastes.
EPIGRAM: A brief pointed saying – a speech full of original epigrams.
Synonyms: maxim proverb, adage
EPITAPH: A tombstone inscription – an epitaphengraved on marble.
EPITHET: A phrase that describes a quality (good or bad) in a person or thing – “Glaring” error is a commonly used epithet.
Synonyms:characterization , appellation
EQUANIMITY (adj.: EQUABLE): Evenness of temper or mind – suffered his cruel fate with equanimity.
Synonyms: serenity, composure, imperturbability, aplomb
ERR (noun: ERRATUM): To be mistaken or go astray – To err is human, to forgive divine.
Synonyms: stray, blunder
ERRATIC: Irresponsible, eccentric; lacking a fixed purpose erratic behavior, reflecting his queer ideas.
ERUDITE: Learned – an erudite person, an editor of many books.
Synonyms: scholarly , knowing
ESOTERIC: Understood by only a select few – an esoteric subject, discussed only by scholars.
Synonyms: abstruse, recondite
EXCEPTIONABLE: Objectionable – exceptionable behavior, universally criticized.
Synonyms:questionable, reprehensible, censurable
EXCULPATE: To free from blame – exculpated by a jury.
Synonyms: vindicate, exonerate, absolve, acquit
Antonyms: arraign, indict, inculpate
EXEMPLARY (noun: EXEMPLAR): Serving as a model; commendable – exemplary conduct approved by all.
Synonyms: illustrative, typical; praiseworthy, laudable
EXODUS: Departure, emigration – the pathetic exodus of refugees from their homeland.
EXOTIC: Strange and foreign – an exotic costume imported from Asia.
EXPATIATE: To speak or write at great length – He expatiated on the subject for two hours.
EXPATRIATE (verb): To banish or exile; to withdraw from one’s country – expatriated for treachery to his country.
(noun): An expatriated person – expatriates who left the United States to live in Paris.
EXPEDIENT (adj.): Convenient in helping to attain some purpose – found it expedient to maintain silence at that moment.
Synonyms: opportune, seasonable
(noun): A means to accomplish something – tried all expedients to achieve a quick result.
EXPLOIT (verb): To use for one’s selfish purpose – refugees exploited by unscrupulous employers.
(noun): A brilliant deed – lauded for his exploits in science.
EXPOUND (noun: EXPOSITION): To set forth in detail; to explain – expounded his theory in a learned article.
EXPURGATE: To purify (usually a piece of writing) of offensive material – expurgate all obscenities before the book could be sold.
Synonyms: purge, delete
EXTEMPORANEOUS: Done or spoken on the spur of the moment or without preparation – an extemporaneous speech.
Synonyms: impromptu, offhand
EXTINCT: No longer existing or active – the extinct dinosaur, alive only in history.
EXTIRPATE: To root out, destroy totally – extirpated the cause of trouble.
Synonyms: eradicate, exterminate, efface, obliterate
EXTRANEOUS. Not essential; foreign; irrelevant – excluded material extraneous to the subject.
Synonyms: extrinsic, adventitious
Antonyms: germane, intrinsic, inherent, relevant, pertinent
EXULTATION: Great rejoicing – received the good news with exultation.
FACADE: Front or face, especially of a building – a facade of marble.
FACETIOUS: Given to joking or inappropriate gaiety; said in fun – brightened the evening with his facetious remarks.
Synonyms: jocose, droll, flippant, frivolous
Antonyms: solemn, grave, saturnine
FALLACIOUS (noun: FALLACY): Unsound; misleading; deceptive – led astray by fallaciousreasoning and plans.
FALLIBLE: Liable to make mistakes or be deceived – Being human, Tom was naturally fallible.
Antonyms: infallible, unerring
FATHOM: To penetrate and understand – difficult to fathom his mysterious actions.
FATUOUS: Foolish; silly – a fatuous suggestion that struck us as stupid.
Synonyms: inane, vacuous, puerile
Antonyms: judicious, sagacious, sage
FEALTY: Faithfulness – The soldiers were pledged to fealty to their ruler.
Synonyms: allegiance, constancy, fidelity
Antonyms: disloyalty; infidelity, treachery
FEASIBLE: Workable – a feasible plan, proved practical by – previous experience.
245 FEIGN (noun: FEINT): To pretend – He feigned to be angry, but we saw through his pretense.
Synonyms: dissemble, sham, dissimulate, affect
FELICITY (adj.: FELICITOUS):
(1) A state of happiness – promoted felicity in the nation.
(2) A high ability – lie has a felicity of language, mastery of the well-chosen phrase.
FERVID: Spirited; ardent – a fervid debater, full of emotion.
Synonyms: perfervid, impassioned, zealous, fervent, vehement
FESTOON (noun): A garland of flowers, leaves, etc. hung between two points – the room bright with festoons of Thanksgiving decorations.
(verb): To hang with festoons – a room festooned with spring flowers.
(1) Something that is believed to have magical powers – savages worshipping the fetish in a ceremonial dance.
Synonym: charm, talisman, amulet
(2) An object of unreasoning devotion and worship – Photography, begun as a hobby, became a fetish.
FIASCO: A ludicrous and complete failure – all his glorious plans ending in a fiasco.
FICTITIOUS: Unreal; made-up – used a fictitious name to avoid being recognized.
FLACCID: Lacking firmness – muscles grown flaccid after the illness.
Synonyms: flabby, limp
FLAGRANT: Outstandingly bad – condemned for his flagrant abuse of power.
Synonyms: glaring, scandalous, notorious, conspicuous, gross
FLAMBOYANT: Elaborately showy – written in a flamboyant, style, full of highly decorative imagery.
Synonyms: florid, ornate, resplendent, embellished, garish, gaudy, gorgeous, rococo
FLAUNT: Display or wave boastfully – flaunted the excellent report before his delighted parents.
FLEETING: Passing swiftly -the fleeting hours of happiness
Synonyms: transitory, fugitive
FLUCTUATE: To waver from one course to another; to vary irregularly – his mood fluctuating with every hour.
Synonyms: oscillate, vacillate, undulate, sway
FORBEAR (noun: FORBEARANCE): To exercise self control; to keep from – forbearing to shoot the animal despite temptation.
Synonyms: restrain, abstain
FORENSIC: Pertaining to public discussion or law courts – a lawyer gifted in forensic debate.
Synonyms: rhetorical, oratorical
FORTUITOUS: Accidental – a fortuitous meeting with a friend in need.
Synonyms: casual, incidental, adventitious, random
FRACAS: A disorderly quarrel – A fracas broke up the meeting.
Synonyms: brawl, altercation, fray, wrangle, imbroglio
FRUSTRATE: To prevent (the attainment of an object); to defeat or render ineffectual – His scholastic progress was frustrated by a serious illness.
Synonyms: balk, thwart, foil, baffle, obstruct, discomfit
FULSOME: Disgustingly excessive – nauseated by fulsome praise.
GARNISH: To trim or decorate – dishes garnished attractively with greens.
Synonyms: adorn, deck
GENEALOGY: A record of a person’s or a family’s ancestors or relatives – an interesting genealogy, including saints and sinners.
GENESIS: Origin – chemistry, which had its genesis in alchemy.
GESTICULATE: To make gestures, or indicate feelings by. motions – gesticulated wildly to show his distress.
GHASTLY: Horrible, deathlike – a ghastly disaster which shocked the world.
Synonyms: gruesome, grisly, pallid, macabre, grim, lurid
GIBE (variant spelling: JIBE): To laugh at; to utter with scorn – gibed at his enemy mercilessly.
Synonyms: mock, sneer, jeer, scoff, flout, deride (adj.: derisive), rail, taunt
GLIB: Smooth-spoken, fluent – a glib liar, distorting the truth effortlessly.
GLUTTONOUS (noun. GLUTTON; verb: GLUT): Inclined to cat to excess – gulped down his food in gluttonous fashion.
GOSSAMER (noun): A very thin gauzelike fabric or structure – a poem so delicate that it seemed an unreal gossamer.
(adj.): Thin and light – the gossamer wings of a dragon fly.
Synonyms: diaphanous, flimsy, gauzelike Antonyms: substantial, ponderous
GREGARIOUS: Habitually fond of associating in a company or herd – gregarious sheep; that gregarious animal, man.
GRIMACE: A distortion of the face to express an attitude or feeling – a grimace that was more expressive than words.
HAIL: To greet – The crowd hailed the returning hero.
Synonyms: accost, salute
HARANGUE (verb): To deliver a long. noisy speech- harangued the multitude.
Synonyms: rant, declaim
(noun): A loud, tiresome speech – an empty harangue which bored his audience.
HARBINGER, A forerunner; ail announcer – the robin, harbinger of spring.
HAUGHTY: Proud; looking down with contempt on others – dismissed the messenger in a haughtymanner.
HEEDLESS: Thoughtless; taking little care – rushed into battle, heedless of the danger.
Synonyms: inadvertent, rash, incautious
Antonyms: prudent, circumspect, mindful, wary
HEINOUS: Wicked; hateful – committed a heinous crime.
Synonyms: atrocious, outrageous, monstrous, odious, nefarious, abominable
HERESY: An opinion held in opposition to the traditional view – a view condemned as heresy.
HIATUS: A gap or vacancy; break -left a hiatus on the page where he erased a sentence.
HISTRIONIC: Pertaining to the theater; designed for show – broke into histrionic laughter, hollow and insincere.
Synonyms: dramatic, theatrical
HOAX (noun): A trick or deception; a practical joke – played a hoax upon the credulous public.
(verb): To play a trick on; to deceive – He hoaxed the crowd completely with his disguise.
HOMONYM: Two words having the same sound but different meanings – confusing such homonyms as mail add male.
HOVEL: A dirty or wretched dwelling – born in a hovel, died in a mansion.
HYPERBOLE: Extravagant exaggeration for effect – An example of hyperbole: “There are a million objections to the project.”
HYPOTHESIS: An assumption made for the sake of argument – worked from a fantastic hypothesis.
IDIOSYNCRASY: A. personal peculiarity – Wearing white was one of Whistler’s idiosyncrasies.
Synonyms: eccentricity, foible, mannerism, crotchet, aberration, quirk, singularity
IGNOMINIOUS (noun: IGNOMINY): Incurring public disgrace – suffered an ignominious descent from political power.
Synonyms: infamous, degrading, opprobrious, odious
Antonyms: illustrious, renowned, preeminent
IMMACULATE: Spotless; pure – an immaculate reputation.
Synonyms: undefiled, unsullied, unblemished, untarnished
Antonyms: defiled, sullied, blemished
IMMINENT: Likely to occur soon – stood in imminent peril.
IMMUNE (verb: IMMUNIZE): Exempt from; protected from – immune from taxation.
Synonym : unsusceptible
IMPALE: To pierce through with a pointed instrument – impaled a spider to the wall.
(1) To accuse (a public official) of wrongdoing – impeached the judge for accepting a bribe.
(2) To cast discredit upon – impeached his motives.
Synonyms: call in question, discredit
IMPECCABLE: Faultless – performed with impeccable skill.
Synonyms: consummate, irreproachable, unerring, infallible
Antonyms: culpable, fallible
IMPERVIOUS: Incapable of being penetrated – a mind impervious to new ideas.
Synonyms: impermeable, impenetrable
Antonyms: permeable, pervasive
IMPLACABLE: Incapable of being soothed, made peaceful, or forgiving – implacable resentment.
Synonyms: unrelenting, inexorable, unappeasable
Antonyms: placable, forbearing
(1) Implied but not clearly expressed – an implicit agreement.
(2) Unquestioning – implicit confidence.
Synonyms: tacit, implied
IMPORT (noun): Meaning; significance or importance – a matter of great import.
Synonyms: purport, moment, consequence
IMPOSTOR (noun: IMPOSTURE): One who pretends to be what he is notunmasked as an impostor.
Synonyms: quack, mountebank, charlatan, bogus, fraud
IMPRECATION: A curse – hurled imprecations at those who would not listen to him.
Synonyms: execration, malediction, anathema
Antonyms: benediction, benison
IMPREGNABLE: Unconquerable – an impregnable fortress.
IMPROPRIETY: Improper act, manners, or expression – guilty of impropriety in public office.
Synonyms: indecency, indecorum
IMPROVIDENT: Lacking in thrift; not providing for future needs – an improvident spender.
Synonyms: prodigal, shiftless
IMPUGN: To attack or criticize as false; to call in question – impugned his honesty.
INCARCERATE: To imprison – crushed his opponents by incarcerating them.
Synonyms: intern, immure
Antonyms: emancipate, enfranchise
INCISIVE: Cutting, penetrating – incisive criticism.
Synonyms: sarcastic, mordant, trenchant, acute
INCOGNITO. With one’s identity concealed – traveled incognito.
INCONTROVERTIBLE: Indisputable – incontrovertible evidence.
Synonyms: irrefutable, -indubitable
INCREMENT: An increase – a salary increment.
INCUMBENT (noun): An officeholder – the incumbent in an election.
(adj.): Obligatory – felt it incumbent to reply.
Synonyms: – mandatory, imperative
INDEFATIGABLE: Untiring – an indefatigable worker.
Synonyms:unflagging, unremitting, persevering
INDIGENOUS: Native – Rice is indigenous to China.
INDOOMITABLE: Stubborn in determination not to be subdued – indomitable courage.
Synonyms:insuperable, irrepressible, invincible, unyielding
Antonyms:tractable, amenable, docile, submissive
INFERENCE: A conclusion reached by reasoning from data or premises – an inference drawn from his remarks.
INGENIOUS: Demonstrating originality, skill, or resourcefulness – an ingenious device.
Synonyms:dextrous, inventive, adroit
INGENUOUS: Simple and straightforward; concealing nothing – an ingenuous plan that anyone could see through.
Synonyms: unsophisticated, naive, candid
INGRATIATE: To win another’s favor or good opinion tried to ingratiate himself with the politician.
INHIBIT: To check or hinder – inhibited his friend from a foolhardy course.
INNOCUOUS: Harmless; inoffensive – an innocuous remark, but it enraged him.
INNUENDO: An indirect reference or suggestion (frequently derogatory) – conveyed his idea by innuendo.
Synonyms: (verb) intimate, insinuate
INORDINATE: Excessive – spoiled by inordinate praise.
Synonyms: immoderate, intemperate, extravagant
INSATIABLE: Unable to be satisfied – insatiable greed
Synonyms. unappeasable, unquenchable, insatiate
INSCRUTABLE: Incapable of interpretation or understanding – the inscrutable smile of the Mona Lisa.
Synonyms: unfathomable, cryptic, enigmatic
INSIDIOUS: Working secretly or slyly – that insidious disease, cancer.
Synonyms: wily, crafty, furtive, treacherous, artful, guileful perfidious
INSTIGATE: To stir tip – instigated discontent among the soldiers.
Synonyms: foment, incite
INTEGRITY: Honesty, moral soundness – a man of proved integrity.
Synonyms: probity, uprightness, incorruptibility
INVEIGH (noun-. INVECTIVE): To speak angrily or bitterly-inveighed against economic discrimination.
Synonyms: rail, denounce, fulminate, vituperate
IRASCIBLE: Easily angered – Even petty things made Peter irascible.
Synonyms: choleric, petulant, testy, peevish, splenetic, touchy
Antonyms: placid, equable
IRE: Anger -aroused his ire.
Synonyms: resentment; (adj.) irate, incensed
IRKSOME: Tedious, monotonous – an irksome chore that no one liked.
ITINERANT: Traveling about; wandering – an itinerant salesman.
JARGON: Confused, unintelligible, meaningless talk; special vocabulary used only by members of a group or trade – Variety, a newspaper written in theatrical jargon.
Synonyms: gibberish, argot, cant
JAUNTY: Having an air of easy carelessness or liveliness – walked with a jaunty step.
Synonyms: sprightly, airy, gay, nonchalant, debonair
Antonyms: somber, staid
JEOPARDY: Danger – His life was in jeopardy.
Synonyms: hazard, peril
JETTISON: To throw overboard (as cargo); to throw off (as a burden or something in the way )- jettisoned their old candidate as a political liability.
JUDICIOUS: Wise; using or exhibiting good judgment – a well-chosen plan, termed judicious by all.
Synonyms:discreet, politic, discerning
KALEIDOSCOPIC: Constantly changing or varying in pattern or scenes – kaleidoscopic views of New York.
KEN: Range of sight or understanding – something beyond our ken.
LABYRINTH (adj.: LABYRINTHINE): A structure or intricate passage out of which it is difficult to find one’s way (also applied to spiritual and intellectual complexities) – confused by a labyrinth of intellectual discussions.
LACHRYMOSE: Causing or given to shedding tears – a lachrymose tragedy.
LACONIC: Saying much in few words – a laconic reply that spoke volumes.
Synonyms:concise, pithy, terse, succinct, taciturn, reticent
Antonyms:verbose, prolix, redundant, diffuse, tautological, turgid, garrulous, voluble
LARCENY: Theft – indicted for grand larceny.
LATENT: Hidden; present but not fully developed – latent talent that time will reveal.
Synonyms:dormant, quiescent, covert, potential
(1) Profuse or generous – lavish in praise.
Synonyms: ample, superabundant
(2) Given to extravagance – a lavish spender.
Synonyms: prodigal, munificent, magnanimous.
Antonyms: parsimonious, niggardly, frugal, penurious
LETHAL: Deadly – a lethal weapon.
Synonyms: mortal, fatal
LONGEVITY: Prolonged duration of life – a country remarkable for the longevity of its inhabitants.
LOW: To bellow softly like cattle – the lowing herd in the meadow.
LUCID: Clear; transparent; easily understood – a lucid explanation of a difficult text.
Synonyms: pellucid, perspicuous, intelligible, limpid, luminous, translucent
Antonyms: abstruse, obscure
LUDICROUS: Ridiculous; producing laughter – a ludicrous remark that set them all to roaring.
Synonyms: mirthful, droll, comical, absurd
Antonyms: doleful, lugubrious, dismal
LUMINARY: An eminent person; a celestial body – the platform graced by a number of luminaries.
MACHIAVELLIAN: Sacrificing moral principles in order to attain power; politically cunning; crafty – a machiavellian design, wickedly contrived.
MALICIOUS (noun: MALICE): Bearing, or acting with, deliberate ill-will or spite – hurting with malicious intent.
Synonyms:rancorous, malignant, malevolent, virulent, vindictive
MASQUERADE (verb): To assume a deceptive appearance or character – a thief masquerading as an honest man.
Synonyms: dissemble, feign
(noun): A disguise; a group of people in disguise or fancy costumes – a masquerade so perfect no one could guess his identity.
MAUDLIN: Sentimental to the point of tears – turned maudlin at the mention of his lost dog.
Synonym : mawkish, lachrymose
MEANDER: To walk about (or talk) aimlessly; to wind about (as a stream) – meandered through the town, looking into shop windows.
MEDIOCRE: Average in quality – a mediocre performance, unworthy of his talents.
MERCENARY: Acting solely from a consideration of reward or profit – actuated by a mercenarymotive.
MERETRICIOUS: Attracting in a false, cheap, or showy manner- a meretricious beauty that is too flashy to be real.
METICULOUS: Fussy about minute details – took meticulous pains with his composition.
Synonyms:fastidious, punctilious, overscrupulous, finical, methodical
Antonyms:desultory, perfunctory, slovenly
METTLE (adj.: METTLESOME: high-spirited ): Disposition; spirit; courage – His mettle was tried in battle.
Idiom: to be on one’s mettle (meaning, “ready to do one’s best”)
MICROCOSM: A little world, or a universe in miniature this village, a microcosm of the great outside world.
Antonym:macrocosm (world on a large scale)
MIMIC: To make fun of or copy by imitating – mimicked the comedian’s gestures.
MISANTHROPIC (noun: MISANTHROPE): Hating or distrusting mankind – condemned for his misanthropic views.
Antonyms: philanthropic, altruistic
MISNOMER: A name or term that describes wrongly – To call him a brave man is really a misnomer.
MONOLOGUE: A speech by one person – The actor gave his views in a dramatic monologue.
Antonyms:colloquy (adj. colloquial): conversation between two or more persons; dialogue: conversation between two persons
MOROSE: Gloomy; ill-humored – shunned because of his morose temper.
Synonyms: sulky, crabbed, sullen, splenetic, saturnine
Antonyms: blithe, genial
MOTLEY: Of various colors; of mixed ingredients – a motley costume; a motley crowd.
Synonyms: checkered (referring to a varied career), piebald, variegated, diverse, heterogeneous
MOTTLED: Spotted or streaked with varied colors – a mottled pony.
MUNDANE: Of, or pertaining to, the world, as contrasted with the spirit – mundane affairs.
Synonyms:earthly, terrestrial, secular, temporal
MURKY: Dark; cloudy – a murky cavern.
Synonyms:dismal, tenebrous, fuliginous
Antonyms:resplendent, glowing, lustrous, luminous, fulgent, coruscating
MUTABLE: Given to frequent change in nature, mood, or form- mutable inmood as a spring wind.
Synonyms:vacillating, fickle, inconstant, fitful, mercurial, wavering, capricious
MYRIAD: Innumerable – the myriad stars in the heavens.
NAUTICAL: Pertaining to ships or navigation – a nautical career.
Synonyms: marine, naval, maritime
NETTLE: To irritate or provoke – nettled by his critics.
Synonyms: vex, pique, goad
NOCTURNAL: Pertaining to, or occurring in, the night – awakened by the sounds of a nocturnal prowler.
NOISOME: Foul-smelling; harmful-the swamp gave off a noisome odor.
Synonyms: malodorous, fetid, disgusting; noxious, deleterious
NONCHALANT: Unmoved or indifferent; casual – reacted to the news in a nonchalant manner.
Antonyms: enthusiastic, zealous
NOSTALGIA: Homesickness – felt nostalgia for the oldhomestead.
NOTORIOUS: Widely known (in a bad sense) – a notorious gambler.
NOVICE: A beginner – conducted himself in politics like a novice.
OBDURATE: Hard-hearted; stubborn – an obdurate, unrepentant criminal.
Synonyms:adamant, unyielding, inflexible
Antonyms:submissive, docile, compliant
OBLIVIOUS (noun: OBLIVION): Forgetful; absent-minded – walking oblivious of his surroundings.
Synonyms:unmindful, heedless, abstracted
OBSESSION: A persistent feeling, idea, activity, etc., which dominates a person; the state of being exclusively preoccupied by a fixed idea – Now that he has learned bowling, it has become his obsession.
Synonyms:mania, infatuation (a foolish passion), monomania
OBSOLETE: No longer in use – an obsolete word, not even included by most dictionaries.
OBTRUSIVE (verb: OBTRUDE): Thrusting oneself or itself into undue prominence – made himself obnoxiously obtrusive.
OBVIATE: To prevent, dispose of, or make unnecessary by appropriate actions – an act which obviated all objections.
OMNIPOTENT: All-powerful – an omnipotent despot.
ONUS: Burden; duty; obligation – bore the onus of his difficult office creditably.
OSTENSIBLE: Apparent; pretended – his ostensible, though not actual, purpose.
Synonyms:professed, plausible (that is, appearing true, reasonable, or fair), specious
OSTRACIZE: To banish; to exclude from public favor or privileges – a former premier ostracized by popular vote.
PANACEA: A remedy for all ills – seeking a panacea to cure our social troubles.
PANEGYRIC: A speech or writing of extravagant praise – delivered a panegyric at his friend’s testimonial dinner.
Synonyms:eulogy, adulation, tribute, laudation (adj. laudatory), encomium
Antonyms:censure, disparagement, derogation, castigation, depreciation
PARADOX: A self -contradictory statement; something ‘that appears to be absurd and yet may be true -“Life is too important a matter to he taken seriously.” – a paradox by Oscar Wilde.
PARAPHRASE: To restate the meaning of a passage in other words – paraphrased the poem in a few lines of prose.
PARODY (noun): A humorous imitation of an author’s style and mannerisms – wrote a parody on Kipling’s “Gunga Din.”
(verb): To write a parody – parodied the popular authors of the (lay to his audience’s amusement.
PECCADILLO: A petty fault-possesses one peccadillo among his many virtues.
Synonyms: frailty, foible, flaw, blemish
PECUNIARY: Pertaining to money – involved in pecuniary difficulties.
Synonyms; financial, fiscal, monetary
PEDANT (adj.: PEDANTIC): One whoproudly showsoffhislearning or whooverrates his knowledge – like a pedant glorying in his scholarly trifles.
PENSIVE: Sadly thoughtful – softly sang his pensive song.
Synonyms: reflective, meditative, contemplative, musing
PEREMPTORY: Positive in expressing an opinion – gave a peremptory judgment.
Synonyms:decisive, resolute, imperious, positive, dogmatic
PERTINACIOUS: Clinging doggedly to an opinion or purpose – pertinacious in his efforts.
Synonyms:obdurate, tenacious, persistent, persevering, intractable, inflexible
PERUSE: To read carefully – perused the important letter.
PERVERSE: Willfully bent on doing the wrong thing – a perverse lad, always disobeying his parents.
Synonyms:headstrong, froward, refractory, wayward, fractious
PETRIFY: To paralyze with horror, fear, or surprise – petrified by the enemy bombardment.
Synonyms:stupefy, stun, bewilder, amaze
PLAGIARISM. Adopting and reproducing, without acknowledgment, the writings or ideas of another and passing them off as one’s own – denied the charge of deliberate plagiarism.
PLATITUDE: A dull and commonplace remark – bored people by his pompous phrases and platitudes.
Synonyms:bromide, truism, axiom
PLEBEIAN: Pertaining to the common people; hence, common or vulgar – plebeian in his tastes and outlook.
PLEBISCITE. A direct vote by the people – The decision to confederate was ratified by plebiscite.
(1) Gripping and moving the feelings powerfully – a poignant grief.
(2) Piercing, biting, pointed – a poignant cry; poignant wit.
PONDEROUS: Very heavy; clumsy; dull – a ponderous speech, extremely boring.
PRECARIOUS: Uncertain or risky – earning a precarious livelihood, providing no luxuries.
(1) Very steep – a precipitous cliff.
(2) Descending rapidly – a precipitous decline in popularity.
PRECOCIOUS: Remarkable for early mental development a precocious genius.
(1) Inclined to plunder or rob; – predatory bands roaming the countryside.
(2) Preying on, others – predatory animals prowling about.
Synonyms: predacious, looting, pillaging
PREDILECTION: Partiality or preference for; a favorable opinion arrived at beforehand – a predilection for theatricals.
Synonyms: prepossession, proclivity, predisposition, penchant
Antonyms: aversion, antipathy, repugnance
PRELUDE: An introduction, forerunner, or preliminary step – a short prelude to the play.
Synonyms: preface, prologue, preamble.
PREROGATIVE: A privilege or power attaching to a position – It is a woman’s prerogative to refuse to tell her age.
PRESTIGE: Esteem or influence accorded for recognized achievements or reputation – As Senator he enjoyed great prestige.
415, PRECOCIOUS: Remarkable for early mental development a precocious genius.
(1) Inclined to plunder or rob; – predatory bands roaming the countryside.
(2) Preying on, others – predatory animals prowling about.
Synonyms: predacious, looting, pillaging
PREDILECTION: Partiality or pr eference for; a favorable opinion arrived at beforehand – a predilection for theatricals.
Synonyms: prepossession, proclivity, predisposition, penchant
Antonyms: aversion, antipathy, repugnance
PRELUDE: An introduction, forerunner, or preliminary step – a short prelude to the play.
Synonyms: Preface, prologue. Preamble
PREROGATIVE: A privilege or power attaching to a position – It is a woman’s prerogative to refuse to tell her age.
PRESTIGE: Esteem or influence accorded for recognized achievements or reputation – As Senator he enjoyed great prestige.
(1) Something taken for granted – acted on a reasonable presumption.
(2) Going beyond proper bounds; impudent boldness – His question was downright presumption.
Synonyms: effrontery, forwardness, arrogance
PREVARICATE: To disguise or conceal the truth to lie – prevaricated in order to avoid detection.
Synonyms: quibble, equivocate; (adj.) mendacious
Antonyms: (noun) veracity, verity; (adj.) forthright
PROCRASTINATE: To postpone or put off to another time – missed his opportunity by procrastinating too long.
Synonyms: defer, delay
PROGNOSTICATE (noun: PROGNOSIS): To forecast – The Weather Bureau prognosticates daily.
Synonyms:presage, portend, augur, forebode
PROLETARIAT: The wage-earning class – a truckman, humble member of the proletariat.
PROMONTORY: A cliff – an imposing promontory along the coast.
PROMULGATE: To publish or proclaim; to spread abroad The President promulgated a decree.
PROTUBERANT: Bulging or swelling out – a protuberant jaw.
PROVISIONAL: Temporary; for the time being – a provisional plan until a permanent decision is reached.
PROXIMITY: Nearness-worked in close proximity to his home.
Synonyms :propinquity, vicinity
PSEUDONYM: A false name assumed by a writer – concealed his identity by a pseudonym.
Synonyms:alias, pen name, nom de plume
PUNITIVE: Inflicting, or concerned with, punishment – took punitive measures against deserters.
QUASH: To crush; to render void – quashed a rebellion; quashed an indictment.
Synonyms:suppress, extinguish, quell; annul
QUERULOUS: Given to fault-finding and complaining – Her querulous nature estranged many people.
Synonyms:fretful, whining, captious, carping, peevish, petulant
QUIXOTIC: Extravagantly romantic or idealistic; highly impractical – a quixotic scheme that can never materialize.
Synonyms:utopian, visionary, fantastic
RACONTEUR: A skilled storyteller – held spellbound by a superb raconteur.
RADICAL (noun): One who advocates extreme basic changes – The reform movement was led by a radical.
(adj.): Thorough, extreme – radical measures adopted to meet the emergency.
Antonym:(noun and adj.) conservative
RAMIFICATION: A branching; sub-division – studied the subject in all its ramifications.
RAZE: To tear down completely- razed the old building.
RECAPITULATE: To restate in a brief, concise form; to sum up – recapitulated the main ideas.
RECIPROCAL: Mutual; done in return for something received – held each other in reciprocalesteem.
RECUMBENT: Lying down; leaning back or down – resting in a recumbent position.
(1) Fragrant – a room redolent of roses.
(2) Reminiscent of – redolent of olden times.
REDOUBTABLE: Commanding fear or respect – cringing before a redoubtable enemy.
REFUTE: To prove incorrect or false-refuted his opponent’s argument.
Antonyms: substantiate, confirm, corroborate
REITERATE: Repeat (several times) – reiterated his story once more.
REMUNERATIVE: Profitable – a remunerative job.
Synonyms: lucrative, gainful
RENEGADE: One who forsakes political or party principles or his religious faith – a renegade from his former allegiance.
Synonyms: turncoat, apostate, recreant, traitor
REPRISAL: Injury inflicted in turn for one received – took action in reprisal against his neighbor.
RESENTMENT: Feeling of displeasure or indignation resulting from mistreatment or abuse – showed resentment at what he considered an unwarranted insult.
Synonyms: umbrage, dudgeon, animosity
RESILIENT: Elastic; light-hearted; possessing power of recovery – a resilient Spirit, refusing to admit defeat.
Synonyms: flexible, pliable, supple, limber
(1) Temporary deferment or cessation of work or pain – a brief respite from labor.
(2) A temporary delay in the execution of -a sentence – granted the doom man a temporary respite.
RETRIBUTION: The reward or punishment exacted for an injury, wickedness, or other action – suffered just retribution for his folly.
Synonyms: requital, nemesis
(1) To make good –retrieved a mistake.
(2) To recover –retrieved the suitcase left at the station.
(3) To restore – retrieved his lost fortunes.
REVERBERATE: To echo – a shot reverberating through the valley.
RUDIMENTARY: In an early stage of development – possessing only a rudimentary, knowledge of physics.
RUE (adj.: RUEFUL): To be sorry for-He will rue the day he left home.
Synonyms: regret, repent
SACROSANCT: Very holy – a shrine. regarded as sacrosanct.
Synonyms: consecrated, inviolable, hallowed
SAGACIOUS (noun: SAGACITY): Wise; shrewd – proved to be sagacious in his judgment.
Synonyms: perspicacious, astute, sapient, discerning, sage
SALLOW: Sick – a sallow complexion.
Antonyms: rubicund, ruddy, florid
SALLY: (verb): To rush forth suddenly – sallied out to meet the enemy.
(noun): A Witty remark – amused the audience with his sallies against his opponent.
Synonyms: quip, banter
SANCTIMONIOUS: Pretending to be religious – showed his hypocrisy in a sanctimonious display of piety.
SANGUINARY: Bloody – a sanguinary battle.
SANGUINE: Of a hopeful disposition; blood-red in color – a perennial optimist, sanguine in temperament.
Synonyms: buoyant, ardent
SARTORIAL: Pertaining to a tailor or clothes – a picture of sartorial perfection.
(1) An attentive or flattering follower – a prince surrounded by many satellites.
Synonyms: lackey, toady, disciple, adherent; adj., fawning, obsequious, partisan
(2) A country influenced or controlled by another – Freedom is conspicuously absent ,in the Soviet satellites.
(3) A body (natural or artificial) which revolves around a larger body, generally a planet – The moon is the only natural satellite of the earth, but in recent years it has been joined by many artificial satellites.
SCINTILLA: A trace; a particle – not a scintilla of convincing evidence.
Synonyms: iota; vestige
SCOURGE (verb): To punish severely; to afflict; to whip – a disease that scourged the country.
Synonyms: excoriate, flay
(noun). A whip or other means of punishment; a cause of affliction – The Black Plague was a dreadful scourge of the Middle Ages.
SCRUTINIZE: To examine carefully -scrutinized the contents of the letter.
SHIBBOLETH: A party slogan – a shibboleth designed to attract votes.
SIMPER (verb): To smile in a silly or affected way simpered as he greeted each guest.
(noun): An affected or silly smile – stood nervously, a simper on his face.
Synonym: (verb and noun) smirk
SINECURE: Employment entailing little or no responsibility or labor – His job was a sinecure.
SINISTER: Threatening or showing evil; dishonest – the sinisterlook of a gangster.
SLEAZY: Flimsy and cheap – sleazycloth which is used only in cheap garments.
SLOVENLY: Untidy-severely criticized the student’s slovenly appearance.
Synonyms: slipshod, slatternly, frowzy
SOPORIFIC: Tending to induce sleep – a poorly written novel, soporific in effect.
SORDID: Mean and base; filthy – Sordid motives breed selfish actions.
Synonyms: degraded, vile, ignoble
SOVEREIGN: Supreme m power and authority; independent of the control of any other government – possessing sovereign powers;a sovereign state.
Synonyms: autonomous, imperial, majestic, paramount
SPORADIC: Occurring singly, at irregular intervals; scattered – sporadic cases of illness.
SPURN: To refuse or reject with contempt – an offer that was spurned instantly.
Synonyms: repel, snub
STOIC: Indifferent, calm in bearing pain or pleasure; practising remarkable self-control over emotions – maintained a stoic attitude despite all his trials.
Synonyms: stolid, impassive
STRINGENT: Strict; compelling, constraining stringent regulations; stringent requirements.
Synonyms: exacting, rigid
STUPENDOUS: Amazing by, virtue of its immense size, force, or any quality in exceptional degree – The circus is a stupendous spectacle.
Synonyms: astounding, prodigious, monstrous, marvelous, colossal, awful
SUCCULENT: juicy – a succulent steak.
Antonyms; desiccated, vapid
SULTRY: Close, hot, and moist – sultry tropical weather.
(1) Lying flat on the back – resting in a supine position.
(2) Inert, inactive, averse to taking action – a supine, ineffective administrator.
Synonyms: listless, torpid
TANGIBLE: Real; actual – tangible gains which may be seen. and counted.
Synonyms: material, veritable, perceptible, substantial
TANTAMOUNT: Equivalent – an act that is tantamount to treason.
TAUNT (verb). To reproach with contempt – taunted him with the charge of failure to act promptly.
Synonyms: mock, twit, gibe, sneer, deride
(noun): An insulting, jeering, or bitter remark – hurled taunts at his foes.
TEEMING: In abundance, fertile, highly productive – the teeming tropics, rank with vegetation.
Synonyms: swarming, fruitful, fecund, abounding
TEMERITY: Unwise or reckless boldness – leaped into battle with thoughtless temerity.
Synonyms: audacity, presumptuousness, effrontery, rashness;
(adj.) temerarious, foolhardy, venturesome
Antonyms: prudence, circumspection, wariness
TEMPORAL: Worldly, as opposed to spiritual; existing for a time only – a man preoccupied with temporal matters.
Synonyms: mundane, secular, civil
TEMPORIZE: To delay or refuse to commit oneself in order to gain time – temporized while his friends hurried to his aid.
TENET: A principle of belief held as true – a tenet of religion which be maintained loyally.
Synonyms: creed, doctrine, dogma
TENUOUS: Slender; not substantial; of slight importance – clung desperately to his tenuous hope.
TRANQUIL: Calm; peaceful – a tranquil summer night.
Synonyms: placid, serene
Antonyms: perturbed, ruffled, turbulent
TRANSGRESS: To break a law or command; to violate a moral principle; to overstep a moral bound or limit – transgressed the bounds of decency; transgressed the law.
TREMULOUS: Trembling – tremulous with fright.
TRIVIAL: Of little – importance – a trivial offense.
Antonyms: gross, momentous
TRUCULENT (noun: TRUCULENCE): Cruel, fierce; harsh; threatening or intimidating savagely – a dispute marked by a truculent attitude on both sides.
(1) Swollen, inflated – turgid rivers overflowing their banks.
Synonyms: bloated, distended
(2) Using big or high-sounding words – a turgid prose style.
Synonyms: pompous, bombastic, prolix
UBIQUITOUS: Existing everywhere – The common cold is a ubiquitous complaint.
Synonyms: omnipresent, universal
UNTENABLE: Incapable of being defended or held – withdrew the argument as untenable.
UTILITARIAN (adj.): Materially or practically useful – beautiful, but not utilitarian.
VANQUISH: To subdue or conquer -an army vanquished with heavy losses.
VAUNT: To boast – proudly vaunted his strength.
Synonyms: brag (noun: braggadocio, braggart), proclaim
VENEER: A superficial appearance or show designed to impress one with superiority – pierced beneath his thin veneer of elegance.
VENERABLE: Deserving respect or reverence because of age – a venerable leader.
VERNAL: Pertaining to spring-an array of vernal flowers.
Antonym: hibernal (wintry)
VERSATILE: Able to do many things skillfully – versatile in all the arts.
VICARIOUS: Taking the place of another; felt, received, or done in place of another – took vicarious pleasure in his brother’s victory.
VICISSITUDE: A change from one condition to another, often unexpected – suffered many vicissitudes of fortune.
VIRAGO: A scolding or ill-tempered woman – My neighbor’s wife is a virago.
Synonyms: shrew, termagant, vixen
VITUPERATE (noun: VITUPERATION; adj.: VITUPERATIVE): To scold or blame loudly, find fault with in abusive language – an angry man, vituperating the world.
Synonyms: berate, revile
WAIVE: To give up (privileges, etc.); to do without – waived his rights to the property.
Synonyms: relinquish, forgo, forsake
WHIM (adj.: WHIMSICAL): A sudden notion or passing fancy -frequently acted on the whim of the moment.
Synonyms: caprice, vagary, crotchet
WRITHE: To twist about (usually with pain) – writhed in agony on the floor.
Synonyms: contort, squirm
ZEALOUS (noun: ZEALOT: fanatic): Full of enthusiasm or eagerness -a zealous student, first in his class.
ZENITH: The highest point – the zenith of his career.
Synonyms: acme, apex, culmination, summit